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 “Yang Terpanggil Tanah Air”: Praktik Politik-Seni di Indonesia Masa Kini

Karnaval seni korban Lumpur Lapindo, Porong 2010 (Foto: Taring Padi)

Karnaval seni korban Lumpur Lapindo, Porong 2010 (Foto: Taring Padi)

Karnaval seni korban Lumpur Lapindo, Porong, 2010. (FOTO: TARING PADI)

DALAM esai bertajuk “The Island that Literature Forgot”, Wayan Sunarta menjelaskan secara singkat babakan-babakan dalam sastra Indonesia, mulai dari Pujangga Lama, Generasi 1945, Generasi 1960-an, novel-novel Romantis di tahun 1980-an, Generasi Reformasi dengan Wiji Thukul sebagai salah seorang pelaku, Angkatan 2000, Sastra Cyber, Sastrawangi, dan Perang Sastra boemipoetra vs TUK/Salihara. Setelah membabar secara singkat babakan sastra Indonesia sejak era Pujangga Lama hingga Perang Sastra boemipoetra vs TUK/Salihara, Sunarta kemudian membabar tentang politik sastra yang dimainkan oleh Goenawan Mohamad dan para pengkritiknya dalam Frankfurt Book Fair (FBF). Tulisan Sunarta itu tampaknya lahir sebagai kritik terhadap acara FBF yang menampilkan Indonesia sebagai tamu kehormatan.

Tulisan ini tidak tertarik untuk ikut berdiskusi soal FBF. Tulisan ini hendak berargumen bahwa esai Sunarta (dan diskusi soal FBF) tidak menangkap satu geliat masif di kalangan seniman Indonesia dewasa ini. Bagi saya, ini jauh lebih menarik. Pada saat isu di seputaran FBF banyak beredar soal bagaimana seleksi karya dilakukan, kelompok-kelompok seniman yang akan saya sebutkan ini justru terus bekerja dalam konteks “sosiolamiah” (sosial dan alamiah) mereka. Dengan demikian, tulisan ini adalah sebuah proposal awal untuk melakukan pembedaan berdasarkan kondisi sosiolamiah dan tema yang digeluti oleh para pelaku seni, di mana mereka menghasilkan karya-karya dengan tema-tema itu pada sekira satu atau dua dekade belakangan ini.

Sebagai sebuah proposal awal, tulisan ini belumlah begitu detail. Pula, soal seniman dan waktu kelahiran karya-karya mereka masih perlu ditelaah lebih lanjut. Saya juga masih berusaha mencari nama yang tepat untuk menyebut kelompok-kelompok seniman ini. Bisa saja dinamai “Angkatan ABC”. Tetapi, saya tidak begitu tertarik dengan istilah angkatan-angkatan dalam kebudayaan Indonesia.

Substansi yang disampaikan dalam karya-karya mereka kira-kira adalah tanggapan kreatif para seniman itu terhadap penghancuran tanah-air rakyat Indonesia. Penghancuran tanah-air tersebut umumnya terjadi karena ekspansi kapital, terutama di bidang industri ekstraktif. Karena itu, untuk sementara, saya sebut kelompok-kelompok seniman dengan kerja-karya seperti ini sebagai “Yang Terpanggil Tanah Air”. Maka, pertanyaan berikutnya adalah: Ada apa dengan tanah-air?

Penghancuran tanah-air rakyat Indonesia muncul dalam banyak simpul dan istilah. Ada yang bersimpul di berbagai konflik sumberdaya alam, gerakan agraria, atau gerakan lingkungan. Di sini, tanah-air bukanlah konsep abstrak, melainkan sebagai sesuatu yang konkret, yaitu ruang-hidup orang-orang Indonesia. Tanah-air orang Indonesia bermacam-macam ekosistemnya. Mulai dari laut, pantai/pesisir, dataran rendah, dataran tinggi, padang rumput, hingga hutan belantara. Tetapi, di abad XXI ini, tanah-air-tanah-air tersebut (semakin) diporak-porandakan oleh ekspansi kapital. Ekspansi kapital hadir dalam bentuk berbagai konsesi pertambangan, minyak dan gas, pemberian konsesi terhadap perusahaan kayu, perkebunan sawit, konsesi konservasi yang mengeksklusi rakyat setempat, konsentrasi, komersialisasi dan eskpansi ruang kota, dan pembangunan infrastruktur-infrastruktur.

Di laut dan pesisir, misalnya, kehidupan para nelayan terancam oleh berbagai bentuk proyek raksasa seperti reklamasi. Dalam publikasi di sebuah media, misalnya, lebih dari 16.800 nelayan terdampak kehidupannya akibat reklamasi di Teluk Jakarta. Di bidang pertambangan, berbagai korban sudah jatuh dalam konflik yang terjadi di sekitar industri ekstraktif tambang. Kasus pembunuhan Salim Kancil adalah kasus yang sedang hangat dibicarakan publik berkenaan dengan pertambangan pasir. Menurut catatan Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria (KPA), pada sepanjang 2014 telah tewas 19 orang, tertembak 17, luka-luka 100, serta ditahan sebanyak 256 orang, akibat dari konflik agraria yang terjadi di 1.520 titik dengan lahan yang menjadi area konflik seluas 6.541.951 hektare.

Di sektor hutan/perkebunan, tanah-air rakyat di Sumatera dan Kalimantan telah berubah menjadi kurungan asap akibat salah urusnya sektor hutan yang ditandai dengan pemberian konsesi-konsesi kayu untuk perusahaan-perusahaan raksasa. Titik awal permasalahan asap di dua pulau ini terjadi paska disahkannya Undang-Undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1967 tentang Ketentuan-Ketentuan Pokok Kehutanan. Undang-undang ini memperkenalkan istilah hak pengusahaan hutan yang kemudian melegalisasi Orde Baru memberikan konsesi-konsesi kayu kepada ratusan perusahaan. Selain itu, alokasi dan konversi lahan masif untuk perkebunan sawit di banyak tempat telah merusak sistem hidrologi ekosistem gambut sehingga menjadi mudah terbakar. Inilah beberapa contoh penghancuran masif atas ruang-hidup rakyat di atas.

Kelompok “Yang Terpanggil Tanah Air” adalah para seniman yang menanggapi proses-proses perubahan ekonomi, politik, dan ekologi yang berujung pada penghancuran tanah-air dan peminggiran rakyat yang mendiami tanah-air tersebut. Pelaku seni yang saya golongkan ke dalam “Yang Terpanggil Tanah Air” adalah mereka yang melawan, mengkritik, atau merefleksikan dengan kritis penghancuran tanah-air. Tanggapan-tanggapan seniman ini bisa muncul dalam berbagai bentuk di banyak tempat. Ia bisa hadir dalam bentuk karya seni atau juga keterlibatan mereka secara langsung dalam mobilisasi massa yang melakukan penolakan terhadap penghancuran tanah-air. Mereka berasal dari berbagai bidang seni, seperti musik, film, lukis, dan puisi. Mereka tidak dibedakan oleh usia tapi dapat dengan mudah saling mengikatkan diri atau bisa dengan mudah dicari kesamaannya dari tema-tema yang digeluti.

Di bidang musik, misalnya, kita bisa menemukan kelompok Superman is Dead sebagai satu di antara 30-an (kelompok) musisi dan seniman yang terlibat dalam gerakan For Bali. For Bali sendiri adalah sebuah gerakan aliansi masyarakat sipil Bali lintas sektoral yang terdiri dari berbagai lembaga dan individu dengan tuntutan utama adalah penolakan terhadap reklamasi di Teluk Benoa, Bali. Kelompok musik lain, Marjinal, secara khusus menciptakan sebuah lagu berjudul Kartini-Kartini Rembang Pasti Menang. Inilah bentuk aliansi Marjinal dengan rakyat yang menolak pendirian pabrik dan tambang semen di Rembang, Jawa Tengah. Selain itu, mereka juga mengadakan konser di perdesaan di Rembang dan kursus sablon di Pati. Kelompok musik lain lagi, misalnya, Sisir Tanah (berbasis di Yogyakarta), juga menyuarakan permasalahan-permasalahan lingkungan seperti kebutuhan terhadap air, tanah, dan udara. Selain Sisir Tanah, ada Ilalang Zaman dengan lagu-lagu mereka, misalnya, tentang penghancuran yang berlangsung di Kalimantan dan Papua. Ilalang Zaman lumayan populer di kalangan anak-anak muda Yogyakarta, terutama berkat kehadiran mereka di berbagai acara dan aksi yang digelar di kota itu.

Di bidang film, muncul film-film Watchdog dengan tema-tema konflik agraria (air, udara, dan tanah) seperti Samin vs Semen, The Mahuzes, dan Belakang Hotel. Film Watchdog seperti Samin vs Semen diputar di banyak kota, terutama di Jawa, sebagai bagian dari kampanye penolakan warga Rembang terhadap kehadiran tambang dan pabrik PT Semen Indonesia di Rembang.

Di Yogyakarta, menyikapi makin susahnya akses warga atas air, muncul gerakan Jogja Asat yang mengangkat permasalahan yang menyangkut ruang-hidup dan eksploitasi air tanah oleh berbagai bangunan komersial sehingga sumur-sumur warga kering. Gerakan Jogja Asat juga menolak berbagai pembangunan demi kepentingan komersial (misalnya: hotel, apartemen, mal, dan kondotel) yang sedang dan akan berlangsung di Yogyakarta. Tanggapan mereka atas persoalan akses air tanah ini diwujudkan, salah satunya, dengan aksi melukis di ruang-ruang publik. Lembaga Kebudayaan Kerakyatan Taring Padi adalah kelompok seniman yang sudah jauh lebih dulu muncul dan memberikan perhatian sangat besar pada isu-isu seperti ini. Mereka, misalnya, terlibat di pengorganisasian rakyat di Porong, Batang, dan berbagai lokasi konflik agraria lain di Indonesia.

Dalam bidang puisi, misalnya, pada peringatan delapan tahun Lumpur Lapindo, telah terbit satu antologi puisi dari banyak penyair yang secara khusus memuat puisi-puisi tentang Lumpur Lapindo. Puisi-puisi beberapa penyair Yogyakarta seperti Saut Situmorang dan HB Jassir, atau Kang Putu dari Semarang, juga banyak yang bertemakan permasalahan di sekitar konflik-konflik agraria dan kehancuran tanah-air rakyat.

Gerakan seni semacam ini, dalam perkembangannya, makin menemukan bentuk aktualisasinya yang terintegrasi. Pada 2014, misalnya, muncul Solidaritas Budaya untuk Masyarakat Urutsewu (Esbumus) yang berisikan berbagai kelompok seperti seniman musik, lukis, tari, batik, dan sastra, akademisi, dan warga dengan kegiatan Arak-Arakan Budaya di Urutsewu, Kebumen. Secara lebih jauh, Esbumus memformulasikan pandangan keseniannya yang disebut dengan “Sikap Seniman Merdeka”. Aktualisasi kesenian yang mengintegrasikan berbagai kelompok seniman ini hadir sebagai tanggapan atas kasus perampasan tanah rakyat Urutsewu (Kebumen) oleh militer.

Tulisan ini masih jauh dari pemetaan yang rinci. Masih dibutuhkan satu usaha yang lebih gigih untuk membuat satu proposal kebudayaan yang lebih solid untuk memperlihatkan bahwa sedang ada satu praktik politik-seni yang masif di Indonesia dengan satu tujuan yang dapat ditarik persamaannya. Pasti banyak nama dan kelompok seni yang memiliki kegelisahan dan menyuarakan permasalahan kehancuran ruang-hidup dan tanah-air rakyat. Tulisan ini, dengan demikian, hanyalah provokasi, terutama bagi para kritikus seni untuk secara sistematis melakukan studi terhadap para seniman “Yang Terpanggil Tanah Air”; juga provokasi bagi para pelaku seni “Yang Terpanggil Tanah Air” agar praktik politik-seni ini menjadi lebih solid, jaringannya lebih luas, mutu artistiknya lebih tinggi, orangnya lebih banyak, dan mampu lebih dari sekadar melakukan “satire terhadap ekspansi kapital” (seperti yang banyak terjadi), melainkan lebih jauh, memenangkan pertarungan. []

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  63. Maulana says:

    Keren sekali Bang…

    Benar bang, kerusakan hutan bermula dari ini; UU 5/1967 tentang Ketentuan-Ketentuan Pokok Kehutanan.

    Kalau Abang liat perubahan UU di bawah ini dengan yang terjadi kebakaran hutan di sumatera saat ini gimana Bang?
    Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Nomor I Tahun 2004 Tentang Perubahan Atas Undang-Undang Nomor 41 Tahun 1999 Tentang Kehutanan..

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      @Maulana, yang itu juga sama aja keknya. itu yang memberikan keistimewaan untuk 13 perusahaan menambang di hutan lindung kan? artinya, industri ekstraktif masih tetap lebih penting bagi pemerintah