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Sesat Pikir Kriminalisasi Polemik Sastra

(Dokumentasi Aliansi Anti Pembodohan)

1 Desember 2014

Elki Setiyo Hadi & Dhani Arma

Aliansi Anti-Pembodohan (AAP) buku 33 Tokoh Sastra Indonesia Paling Berpengaruh menggelar diskusi bertajuk “Denny JA dan Penipuan Sastra Indonesia” pada Rabu, 19 November 2014. Acara yang berlangsung di Auditorium Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Gadjah Mada, ini menghadirkan tiga pembicara, yakni inisiator AAP Dwi Cipta, kritikus sastra sekaligus akademisi Katrin Bandel, dan peneliti buku 33 Tokoh Sastra Indonesia Paling Berpengaruh Ahmad Fawaid. Dua pembicara lain, Jamal D Rahman selaku ketua tim buku 33 Tokoh Sastra Paling Berpengaruh dan Denny JA tidak hadir tanpa konfirmasi.

(Dokumentasi Aliansi Anti Pembodohan)

(Dokumentasi Aliansi Anti Pembodohan)

Dwi Cipta membuka diskusi dengan membacakan kronologi polemik buku 33 Tokoh Sastra Indonesia Paling Berpengaruh. Polemik berawal dari dimasukannya nama Denny JA di antara nama-nama tokoh sastra seperti Chairil Anwar, Pramoedya Ananta Toer, dan WS Rendra di dalam buku 33 Tokoh Sastra di Indonesia Paling Berpengaruh. Belakangan justru muncul kriminalisasi terhadap dua sastrawan Saut Situmorang dan Iwan Soekri Munaf.

Dwi Cipta mengatakan, AAP menginginkan supaya buku tersebut berhenti disebarkan dan didiskusikan terlebih dahulu. “Apakah buku ini memang layak dibaca atau tidak dan apa konsekuensinya,” ujarnya. Dwi Cipta juga mengungkapkan kekecewaannya karena polemik yang seharusnya terjadi di wilayah perdebatan sastra justru dibelokkan ke ranah hukum.

Saut Situmorang dan Iwan Soekri dilaporkan ke polisi oleh Fatin Hamama atas tuduhan melakukan pencemaran nama baik dan kekerasan verbal terhadap perempuan. Fatin juga melaporkan tuduhannya ke Komnas Perempuan. Iwan Soekri dan Saut Situmorang dianggap melakukan pelecahan karena menggunakan kata-kata “penipu” dan “bajingan” dalam kritik mereka di Facebook terhadap buku 33 Tokoh Sastra di Indonesia Paling Berpengaruh.

Selanjutnya, Katrin Bandel melihat ada keganjilan dalam kasus kriminalisasi terhadap Saut Situmorang dan Iwan Soekri. Ia menyayangkan sikap Fatin selaku editor puisi esai yang ditulis Denny JA karena membawa polemik sastra ke ranah hukum. Menurutnya, perdebatan merupakan hal yang biasa terjadi di dunia sastra. “Kedua kata tadi dipersoalkan secara hukum dan akhirnya digiring dari segi keadilan gender sehingga masuk sebagai pelecehan seksual,” jelas Katrin. Alih-alih memberikan pemahaman tentang polemik sastra, media massa lebih ramai membincangkan kasus kriminalisasi terhadap Saut Situmorang dan Iwan Soekri.

Katrin menjelaskan, pencemaran nama baik sebetulnya terkait dengan bagaimana seseorang yang menyebar fitnah telah memengaruhi reputasi seseorang. Ia menambahkan, pencemaran nama baik dapat dipersoalkan di ranah hukum ketika berakibat konkret, misalnya fitnah yang menyebabkan usaha seseorang bangkrut. Penulis buku Sastra, Perempuan, dan Seks (2006) ini juga menyinggung definisi pelecehan seksual. “Pelecehan seksual adalah dijadikannya seseorang sebagai objek seks, entah dengan perkataan yang bersifat seksual atau perbuatan yang merugikan orang lain secara seksual,” terangnya. Bagi pengajar pada program Ilmu Religi dan Budaya, Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta ini, sikap Komnas Perempuan yang menanggapi laporan Fatin Hamama tidak dilakukan secara hati-hati dan tidak pantas didukung. Katrin menilai Fatin Hamama dan Denny JA berusaha untuk menggiring opini publik bahwa Iwan Soekri dan Saut Situmorang melakukan apa yang dituduhkan.

Sementara itu, Ahmad Fawaid menjelaskan pola argumentasi dan kritik internal terhadap argumentasi Denny JA dan kawan-kawannya. Fawaid mengajak para peserta diskusi untuk membaca secara detail bukti material dari klaim buku 33 Tokoh Sastra Indonesia Paling Berpengaruh. Menurut Fawaid, data yang disajikan tidak semuanya benar alias manipulatif dan tidak bisa dipertanggungjawabkan kebenarannya. Fawaid menunjukkan data-data yang menyatakan Denny JA sebagai salah satu tokoh sastra paling berpengaruh hanyalah klaim.

Fawaid juga menyebutkan intrik-intrik yang terjadi dalam penyusunan buku 33 Tokoh Sastra Indonesia Paling Berpengaruh. Pertama, Tim 8 selaku penyusun buku mencomot lukisan Hanafi sebagai sampul buku. Kedua, mereka mengatakan bahwa buku ini diterbitkan atas inisiatif Pusat Dokumentasi Sastra (PDS) HB Jassin. Bukti kronologis menunjukkan bahwa PDS HB Jassin tidak pernah melakukan dukungan atau mengeluarkan legitimasi pada buku tersebut. PDS HB Jassin menyebutkan bahwa mereka hanya menyambut terbitnya buku 33 Tokoh Sastra Indonesia Paling Berpengaruh. “Penerbitan ini bermasalah,” tegas Fawaid.

Tentang ketidakhadiran dua pembicara, tim AAP tidak menerima konfirmasi apa pun dari Jamal D Rahman dan Denny JA. “Tidak ada konfirmasi dari mereka. Padahal, kami sudah berusaha menyampaikan undangan beberapa kali lewat email. Hal semacam ini, yakni tidak merespon undangan diskusi, sudah berulang kali terjadi sejak awal 2014,” ungkap Fawaid.

Fawaid menekankan, tujuan dari forum publik semacam ini adalah mengajak Denny JA untuk berdiskusi. AAP mengadakan diskusi untuk menyampaikan bahwa ada masalah dalam buku 33 Tokoh Sastra Indonesia Paling Berpengaruh. “Sesungguhnya ini bahan penyadaran bahwa kita perlu terlibat dalam politik sastra. Jangan sampai ruang akademik menjadi seperti ruang bagi mahasiswa atau pelajar salon yang tak mau terlibat langsung. Menyatakan sikap politik itu penting, agar kita tidak selalu dibodohi dengan kejadian seperti ini,” tegasnya. []

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