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Sengketa Pelayanan Air dan Korupsi PDAM

Penulis, reporter: Maulana Kautsar & Nanda Aria P.

24 Agustus 2014

 

Layanan PDAM yang buruk kepada masyarakat bukan kabar angin. Sayangnya, hal tersebut tidak banyak diadukan oleh pelanggan. Korupsi disinyalir menjadi salah satu penyebabnya.

Pagi itu Khalik Sandera dan beberapa kawannya yang mengontrak di daerah sekitaran Stadion Mandala Krida Yogyakarta terkejut. Mereka menemukan air yang dikeluarkan dari keran rumah kontrakannya tiba-tiba mengeruh. Tidak hanya keruh, air yang keluar dari keran air itu pun juga tidak lancar. Walhasil, Khalik dan beberapa kawannya harus menunggu hingga setengah jam untuk memenuhi kebutuhan mandi mereka. Itulah pengalaman Khalik selama dia menjadi pelanggan Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum (PDAM). Pria yang kini menjabat sebagai direktur Wahana Lingkungan Hidup (WALHI) Yogyakarta tersebut mengaku kejadian tersebut tidak hanya sekali dia rasakan. “Jika musim kemarau datang keruhan semacam itu akan sering terjadi,” kenangnya.

Pengalaman buruk Khalik di tahun 2008-an itu juga dirasakan oleh ibu-ibu di seputaran Karangwuni. Meskipun belum menjadi pelanggan PDAM, mereka enggan untuk menggunakan layanan air dari penyedia jasa air milik daerah itu. Santi, ibu rumah tangga yang berdomisili di Karangwuni, mendapat kabar bahwa air PDAM Kota Yogya kualitasnya buruk. “Kalo di Kota Yogya, pakai Pure It enggak boleh,” ujarnya. Pure It adalah merek penyuling air sehingga air minum tak perlu dimasak terlebih dahulu. Sedang Darus, ibu lainnya, tidak suka air PDAM karena berbau kaporit.

Hal tersebut dikuatkan oleh temuan yang dilakukan oleh WALHI Yogyakarta. Dalam laporan berjudul “Analisis Kota Hijau, WALHI menemukan pelanggan PDAM di beberapa tempat di Kota Yogyakarta mengeluhkan kualitas air yang keruh dan berbau kaporit. Temuan di bulan Februari 2013 itu jelas berbanding terbalik dengan hasil pengujian antara PDAM Tirtamarta Yogyakarta dengan Dinas Kesehatan Yogyakarta yang menyebutkan air pengelolaan PDAM layak konsumsi.

Pelayanan PDAM Tirtamarta yang buruk tersebut nyatanya masih diapresiasi oleh beberapa pihak. PDAM Tirtamarta didapuk menjadi salah satu PDAM terbaik kategori 30.000–50.000 sambungan dan meraih penghargaan PERPAMSI di tahun 2013.

Edisi 2_laput 1_foto 2a

Kantor PDAM Tirtamarta Yogyakarta yang sedang mengadakan syawalan antarpegawai, Rabu (13/8) kemarin (Maulana/Literasi.co)

Ketika keluhan dari berbagai masyarakat itu dikemukakan, Majio, Bagian Umum dari PDAM Tirtamarta menanggapinya dengan diplomatis, “Segala kritik dan keluhan dari masyarakat akan kami tampung.”

Penghargaan yang diselenggarakan oleh Persatuan Perusahaan Air Minum Seluruh Indonesia (PERPAMSI) dan Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum tersebut terbagi menjadi tiga kategori.Yaitu, PDAM dengan 30.000 sambungan, 30.000–50.000 sambungan, dan 50.000–100.000 sambungan. Selain memberikan penghargaan, Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum melalui Badan Pendukung Pengembangan Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum (BPPSPAM) mengeluarkan rilis kinerja 350 unit PDAM seluruh Indonesia di tahun 2013.

Rilis tersebut menempatkan 50 persen (176 unit PDAM) dalam kondisi sehat; 30 persen (104 unit PDAM) dalam kondisi kurang sehat; dan 20 persen (70 unit PDAM) dalam kondisi sakit. Kriteria pengkategorian itu berdasarkan empat jenis aspek penilaian yaitu, aspek keuangan yang berbobot 25 persen; aspek pelayanan yang berbobot 25 persen; aspek operasional yang berbobot 35 persen; dan aspek sumber daya manusia yang berbobot 15 persen. Dari setiap bobot penilaian, BPPSPAM menggunakan aspek rasio evaluasi dengan skala 1-5.

Hanya saja penghargaan yang telah dilakukan sejak tahun 2010 tersebut tidak menjadi patokan penyelenggaraan keuangan PDAM yang akuntabel. Hal ini dapat terlihat dari masih banyaknya PDAM yang mengalami berbagai kasus korupsi.

Dari data yang dihimpun oleh Literasi.co setidaknya ada 22 PDAM yang terindikasi kasus korupsi, yaitu, PDAM Bandung, PDAM Kabupaten Banyumas, PDAM Kota Bengkulu, PDAM Kota Bogor, PDAM Kabupaten Bone, PDAM Kabupaten Cianjur, PDAM Kabupaten Dairi, PDAM Kabupaten Gianyar, PDAM Kabupaten Gorontalo, PDAM Kota Jambi, PDAM Kabupaten Karawang, PDAM Kepulauan Riau, PDAM Kabupaten Kulonprogo, PDAM Kota Makasar, PDAM Kabupaten Malang, PDAM Provinsi Sumatera Utara, PDAM Kota Padang, PDAM Kota Pekanbaru, PDAM Kota Tangerang, PDAM Kabupaten Trenggalek, PDAM Tapanuli Utara, dan PDAM Kabupaten Wonogiri.

Banyaknya jumlah indikasi korupsi yang terjadi pada PDAM itu sayangnya tidak menjadi fokus utama badan kajian korupsi maupun media. Fariz Fahrian, peneliti Pusat Kajian Anti Korupsi (PUKAT) UGM mengatakan, banyak kasus PDAM di daerah tidak tersentuh. “PUKAT bahkan tidak banyak memiliki laporan korupsi PDAM. Saya bahkan baru tahu kalau PDAM Kulonprogo terjadi kasus korupsi,” kata dia.

Meskipun begitu, dirinya memprediksi bahwa korupsi yang melibatkan PDAM memiliki pola yang hampir mirip. “Pola itu biasanya terjadi pada pengadaan barang atau jasa. Implikasinya pelayanan dan distribusi air kepada konsumen menjadi tidak terpenuhi,” jelas Fariz.

Hal senada diungkapkan pula oleh Khalik. Menurutnya, korupsi yang terjadi di tubuh PDAM biasanya melibatkan unsur pengadaan fasilitas vital seperti penggantian pipa dan perawatan mesin. “Pipa yang digunakan PDAM itu dibuat sejak jaman Belanda. Tidak heran jika PDAM sering mengalami kebocoran pipa karena pipa yang digunakan telah korosi,” terang Khalik.

Pendapat Khalik ini ada benarnya. Dalam rilis Kinerja PDAM tahun 2013 yang dikeluarkan oleh BPPPSPAM, tercatat rasio total tingkat kebocoran air yang dialami PDAM se-Indonesia mencapai 33%. Asumsinya, jika pengguna PDAM sebesar 8 juta, menurut sensus tahun 2010, maka 2,6 juta pelanggan akan merasakan dampak kebocoran tersebut.

Selain kasus kebocoran, PDAM sepertinya abai terhadap kemampuan tekanan air. Dalam rilis Kinerja PDAM 2013 yang dibuat oleh BPPSPAM tingkat tekanan air ke sambungan pelanggan sebesar 43, 8 %. Tak heran jika di beberapa wilayah ditemukan adanya pelanggan yang kesulitan untuk mendapatkan pasokan air dari PDAM. Contoh kasus ini terjadi di pengguna PDAM Kota Surabaya. Khalik menemui kasus ini setelah menyaksikan sendiri apa yang terjadi di rumah seorang kawannya. “Karena PDAM Kota Surabaya tidak mampu mendistribusikan air hingga keran rumah pelanggan akhirnya, pelanggan berinisiatif menggunakan mesin pompa air untuk menyedot air dari keran PDAM tersebut,” jelasnya.

 

Pelanggan dan tingkat kepedulian layanan PDAM

Berdasarkan sensus tahun 2010, hanya sekitar 8 juta yang menggunakan PDAM. Jika dihitung dalam persen artinya, terdapat 3,4 persen penduduk Indonesia yang menggunakan PDAM. Jumlah tersebut tentu saja jauh dari harapan PDAM yang menargetkan 10 juta sambungan pada tahun 2013.

Upaya PDAM untuk terus menaikkan jumlah pelanggan sayangnya tidak dibarengi dengan pelayanan yang baik. Jika berkaca dari kooperasi SAGUAPAC di Bolivia, dapat ditemukan solusi mengenai tata kelola air.

Muhammad Sofwan Hadi dalam artikel berjudul “SAGUAPAC: Potret Pengelolaan Air Berbasis Kooperasi di Bolivia” menulis, “Berdirinya Kooperasi SAGUAPAC merupakan babak baru dalam pelayanan air bersih di Bolivia. Berdirinya kooperasi air ini, didorong oleh semangat pelayanan air dan sanitasi yang lebih prima kepada rakyat. Pada saat itu, Pemerintah Bolivia akhirnya menyetujui permintaan dewan air otonom untuk berubah menjadi kooperasi. Dan, pada tahun yang sama, SAGUAPAC diakui oleh INALCO, Institut Kooperasi Nasional di Bolivia.

Kooperasi air SAGUAPAC ini dikelola dengan sistem kooperasi yang jumlah anggotanya sebanyak 96.000 orang. Orang sebanyak itu adalah pelanggan yang juga pemilik kooperasi tersebut. Pengambilan keputusan pada setiap tingkatan dilakukan oleh semua anggota kooperasi dengan sistem satu orang satu suara. Hingga kontrol terhadap tata kelola air berada di tangan anggota.

Di Indonesia, pengelolaan air semacam itu sudah mulai tumbuh tapi dalam cakupan yang lebih kecil. Salah satu pengelolaan air dilakukan oleh warga di Dusun Blado, Kecamatan Giritirta, Kabupaten Gunungkidul. Kelompok pengelola air ini terbentuk pascagempa tahun 2006. Setelah gempa berkekuatan 5,9 skala richter tersebut, warga melakukan antisipasi terhadap retakan batuan besar yang berada di dinding bukit dekat pemukiman mereka. Setelah melakukan proses tukar guling lahan pertanian mereka secara mandiri mereka berpindah ke daerah yang lebih tinggi dari retakan tersebut. Dahulu warga menempati di daerah bawah karena terdapat sumber mata air.

Setelah melakukan relokasi, warga dengan dibantu WALHI Yogyakarta membuat bak penampungan air guna memenuhi pasokan air. “Awalnya warga dijatah menggunakan jerigen. Kini, saya mendapat kabar, jika mereka dengan swadaya dan bantuan pemerintah daerah telah mendistribusikan air dari mata air melalui pipa. Bahkan kontrol air telah menggunakan meteran,” kata Khalik.

Meskipun telah menggunakan meteran sebagai kontrol atas jumlah air yang dipakai, pengelolaan air di Dusun Blado ini belum berbentuk kooperasi. Warga masih menggunakan sistem iuran yang besarannya telah ditentukan bersama. Sistem pengelolaan yang mereka jalankan masih menggunakan kedekatan antarwarga.

Menurut Eko Teguh Paripurno, ahli geologi dari UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta, model kooperasi untuk pengelola air sangat memungkinkan. Namun Eko memberi syarat, “Asal kooperasinya sudah dibentuk terlebih dahulu,” kata Eko.

Eko menggarisbawahi, permasalahan air di Indonesia menurutnya merupakan permasalahan yang harus diselesaikan bersama antara masyarakat, pemerintah, dan PDAM. “Jangan hanya menuntut alam dan lingkungan untuk menyediakan air kalau kita sendiri enggak peduli.”

Eko menambahkan, “PDAM hanya tukang jual air. Tugas negara adalah mendorong dan memfasilitasi rakyatnya untuk berperan mengelola air dan membantu penegakkan hukum yang tegas. Tata kelolanya (air) jadi tanggung jawab semua,” tandas Eko. [ ]

 

 

 

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