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Aug 25, 2014

SAGUAPAC: Potret Pengelolaan Air Berbasis Kooperasi di Bolivia

(Dokumentasi: http://elsol.com.bo/)

Ditulis oleh: Muhammad Sofwan Hadi

24 Agustus 2014

 

El agua es vida”, air adalah sumber kehidupan. Itulah slogan SAGUAPAC (Cooperativa de Servicios Públicos Santa Cruz, Kooperasi Pelayanan Publik Santa Cruz), sebuah kooperasi yang menyediakan pelayanan air dan sanitasi di Santa Cruz, Bolivia. SAGUAPAC disebut-sebut sebagai penyedia air bersih terbaik di Amerika Latin.

Pada medio 1960 dan 1970-an, Santa Cruz, sebuah kota di bagian timur Bolivia, mengalami peningkatan jumlah penduduk yang signifikan, mencapai 150.000 jiwa. Di areal seluas 36.300 hektare, Santa Cruz didiami oleh 1,3 juta jiwa. Jumlah tersebut menempatkan Santa Cruz sebagai kota padat di Bolivia. Kondisi tersebut dibarengi dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan pelayanan air bersih.

Tepat pada 9 Agustus 1979 berdirilah SAGUAPAC sebagai penyedia air dan sanitasi di Santa Cruz. Berdirinya SAGUAPAC merupakan babak baru dalam pelayanan air bersih di Bolivia. Pendiriannya didorong oleh semangat pelayanan air dan sanitasi yang lebih prima kepada rakyat. Pada saat itu, Pemerintah Bolivia akhirnya menyetujui permintaan dewan air otonom untuk berubah menjadi kooperasi. Dan, pada tahun yang sama, SAGUAPAC diakui oleh INALCO, Institut Kooperasi Nasional di Bolivia.

(Dokumentasi: http://elsol.com.bo/)

(Dokumentasi: http://elsol.com.bo/)

Perubahan pengelola air dan sanitasi dari dewan air otonom menjadi SAGUAPAC merupakan reformasi besar kedua dalam satu dekade di Bolivia. Sebelum dipegang oleh dewan air otonom, pengelolaan air dan sanitasi di Santa Cruz dipegang langsung oleh pemerintah pusat melalui Komite Pekerjaan Umum. Pada 1973, tanggung jawab itu dipegang oleh dewan air otonom.

Semangat mendirikan SAGUAPAC juga didorong oleh undang-undang kooperasi di Bolivia, Ley de Cooverativas. Undang-undang tersebut telah disahkan pada 1959. Sebelum berdirinya SAGUAPAC, di Bolivia telah berdiri dua kooperasi di bidang pelayanan publik, yakni Cooperativa de Teléfonos Automáticos de Santa Cruz (COTAS) pada 1962 untuk sektor komunikasi dan Cooperativas Rurales de Electricidan (CRE) di sektor listrik.[1]

Prinsip-prinsip SAGUAPAC mengacu pada semangat kooperasi pada umumnya, yaknisemua anggota mempunyai hak dan kewajiban yang sama, setiap anggota mempunyai satu suara terlepas dari jumlah dan nilai kontribusi mereka, dantujuan kooperasi adalah kesejahteraan masyarakat.

Di laman resminya, SAGUAPAC menegaskan bahwa, “Kooperasi adalah lembaga nirlaba yang dibentuk oleh pengelompokan sukarela individu yang memiliki kebutuhan umum dan menyediakan modal untuk menciptakan suatu entitas yang tujuannya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dasar umum, dan memungkinkan secara ekonomi, sosial dan/atau budaya. Kooperasi memiliki tujuan yang berbeda dengan perusahaan swasta dalam menghasilkan laba dari penjualan produk atau jasa.”

Berdirinya SAGUAPAC menandai keberhasilan rakyat dalam mengelola sumber daya yang menjadi kebutuhan hidupnya. Kendati sama mencari laba dari sektor pelayaan dan jasa, ada hal prinsipil yang membedakan kooperasi dengan privatisasi swasta. Tujuan utama kooperasi adalah pelayanan maksimal demi kesejahteraan seluruh anggota atau rakyat. Berbeda dengan sektor privat, keuntungan dikeruk sebesar-besarnya untuk keuntungan sedikit pihak.

 

Pencapaian dan tata kelola SAGUAPAC

Mengacu pada sebuah studi yang dilakukan oleh Corporación Andina de Fomento, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, kualitas air bersih SAGUAPAC mendapatkan nilai 99,3 dari skala 100[2]. Suplai air SAGUAPAC berasal dari air bawah tanah dengan kedalaman 360 meter, produksi setiap tahunnya mencapai 64 juta kubik. Air dialirkan melalui empat tangki penampung dan dipompa sejauh 3.370 kilometer. Sementara, limbahnya digunakan untuk merawat tanaman dan dibersihkan sebelum akhirnya dialirkan ke sungai. Kondisi yang bisa dikatakan tak lumrah terjadi di Amerika Latin.[3]

Pelayanan air bersih SAGUAPAC telah mampu menyuplai air bersih bagi 66 persen dari total penduduk yang tersebar di 63 persen areal Kota Santa Cruz dari tengah, utara, dan selatan. Kondisi tersebut menempatkan SAGUAPAC sebagai kooperasi pelayanan jasa air di wilayah urban terbesar di dunia. SAGUAPAC mampu melayani 750 ribu penduduk Santa Cruz dengan total tagihan per tahun mencapai US$ 19 juta.[4]

Pelayanan SAGUAPAC juga telah memenuhi standar internasional yang dilihat dari beberapa indikator, yakni dioperasikan dengan efisien, memberikan pelayanan terus menerus dengan kualitas yang baik antar pelanggan dari satu rumah ke rumah, dan tata kelola keuangan yang memuaskan.[5] Selain itu, SAGUAPAC juga mampu memberikan upah layak, stabilitas kerja, dan perlakuan yang setara kepada 525 pekerja.[6]

SAGUAPAC tetap merawat nilai-nilai kemandirian, tanggung jawab, demokratis, setara, adil, dan solidaritas. Nilai-nilai tersebut terinternalisasi dari tahun ke tahun. Internalisasi nilai hingga ke tataran individu telah mampu menciptakan kondisi kerja mendukung. Begitu pula dalam interaksi tidak ada pembedaan. Komunikasi antarbagian tidak berlangsung dalam kondisi yang kaku dan formal, tetapi sebaliknya, cair dalam informal dan akrab.

Struktur pengambilan keputusan di SAGUAPAC berdasarkan susunan klasik kooperasi. Keputusan berada di tangan anggota/pelanggannya yang terbagi ke dalam 9 distrik. SAGUAPAC dimiliki dan dikontrol oleh anggota di masing-masing area. Keanggotaan meliputi individu atau institusi.

Setiap dua tahun, pertemuan diadakan di setiap distrik air dengan dua fungsi utama. Pertama, memilih lima anggota perwakilan distrik. Kedua, memilih tiga perwakilan yang akan duduk dalam perwalian tingkat kota. Untuk perwalian kota akan diisi oleh 27 anggota. Jumlah ini didapat dari sembilan distrik yang masing-masing diwakili oleh tiga anggota. Untuk dapat menggunakan hak pilihnya, para anggota/pelanggan harus menunjukkan kartu identitas dan bukti pembayaran air.[7] Perwalian tingkat kota yang berjumlah 27 orang kemudian akan memilih sembilan orang pengurus dan enam orang pengawas untuk masa jabatan enam tahun.

Struktur organisasi SAGUAPAC juga meminimalisir politisasi di tubuh kooperasi. Faktanya, hampir setiap waktu, SAGUAPAC didekati oleh politisi untuk bisa masuk dalam kepengurusan. Kendati demikian, usaha tersebut selalu gagal dan SAGUAPAC tetap aman. Hal tersebut didukung oleh peraturan yang menegaskan bahwa anggota tidak dapat dipilih sebagai pengurus apabila ia berperan aktif dalam sebuah partai politik. [ ]

 

Catatan Kaki

  1. Bosman Batubara. “Belajar dari SAGUAPAC dan Revolusi Air Chocabamba Bolivia”. Disampaikan dalam diskusi Persma Balairung UGM, 20 Maret 2014.
  2. http://stories.coop/stories/clean-water-cooperative-principles/
  3. Ibid.
  4. Fernando Ruiz-Mier dan Meike van Ginneken. 2006. Consumer Cooperatives: An Alternative Institutional Model For delivery of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Services? Dalam Water Supply & Sanitation Working Notes No. 5 Januari 2006.
  5. Ibid.
  6. http://stories.coop/stories/clean-water-cooperative-principles/
  7. Bosman Batubara. Op. cit.

 

 

 

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