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Pertanyaan untuk Cinta dalam Novel The Kreutzer Sonata Karya Leo Tolstoy

Oleh: Ahmadi *

Karena beberapa hal akhirnya saya tidak jadi me-review buku Tuhan Izinkan Aku jadi Pelacur karya Muhidin M. Dahlan. Di antara salah satu alasannya, karena buku tersebut dipinjam teman dan tak kunjung dikembalikan. Oleh karena itu, akhirnya saya meresensi buku The Kreutzer Sonata karya Leo Tolstoy (edisi bahasa Indonesia, 2009) terbitan Jalasutra dengan penerjemah Wawan Eko Yulianto.

Buku yang habis sekali duduk ini cukup membuat saya terpukau. Dengan bahasa prosa jenis sastra yang bertele-tele, filosofi kehidupan cerita ini cukup mudah untuk dinikmati dan dicerna, walaupun dengan plot yang cukup lambat.

Saya tak benar-benar mengenal Tolstoy kecuali sedikit tentang apa yang telah dituliskan oleh Wikipedia tentangnya. Tapi karya-karya yang terkenal sangat moralis yang sarat akan pembaharuan sosial itu belum ada yang saya sentuh. Novel The Kreutzer Sonata inilah perkenalan pertama saya dengan Tolstoy.

Mungkin Tolstoy menulis ini sembari menghayati kehidupannya dengan perempuan, dilihat dari persinggungannya dengan perempuan dan hubungan rumahtangganya sendiri. Karena kehidupan perkawinannya yang belakangan digambarkan oleh A.N. Wilson (seorang penulis Inggris dan kolumnis surat kabar) sebagai salah satu yang paling tidak bahagia dalam sejarah sastra. Hubungan dengan istrinya semakin buruk ketika keyakinannya menjadi semakin radikal.

Novel ini dimulai dari obrolan beberapa orang dalam gerbong kereta. Untuk membunuh kebosanan serta suasana yang terbangun dalam kereta, obrolan ini menjadi semakin hangat, mulai dari bisnis, pendidikan, seni, cinta, pernikahan dan perceraian. Posdnicheff, tokoh utama dalam novel ini, hanya diam mendengarkan.

Namun, obrolan semakin panas dan Posdnicheff mulai tertarik ketika salah satu perempuan mulai membahas tentang pernikahan. Sang perempuan berujar, “…cinta menyucikan perkawinan dan bahwa perkawinan sejati adalah perkawinan yang disucikan oleh cinta.” Posdnicheff mulai terusik. Dia merasa bahwa tidak seperti itu dalam kenyataannya. Perempuan adalah seorang makhluk yang telah membuatnya benar-benar tersiksa selama menjalin hubungan dengannya, apalagi dengan embel-embel cinta.

Dengan tujuan yang berbeda-beda, pada akhirnya dalam obrolan ini hanya tersisa dua orang. Sang narator dan Posdnicheff sendiri. Dimulailah dialog yang didominasi oleh Posdnicheff. Dia mulai bercerita tentang dirinya, bercerita bahwa dia sebenarnya adalah seorang mantan pembunuh istrinya sendiri. Dimulai dengan persinggungnya dengan para perempuan yang dia anggap hanya sebagai seorang pemuas nafsu, sebelum dia mulai memutuskan seharusnya ada yang lebih bijak daripada hanya menikmati perempuan untuk pemuas nafsu belaka. Di sini Posdnicheff mulai memperlihatkan kontradiksi bahwa seharusnya lelaki yang bejat seperti dia, yang melakukan hubungan badan dengan banyak perempuan, tak layak mendapatkan perempuan yang masih suci. Tapi Posdnicheff bertekad untuk mendapatkan perempuan cantik dan suci. Pada akhirnya dia berhasil menemukan perempuan suci dan cantik tersebut dan menikahlah mereka berdua.

Posdnicheff sangat mencintai istrinya dan karena cinta yang berlebihan inilah yang membuat dia sakit. Timbullah kecurigaan, kecemburuan dan segala macam penyakit hati. Posdnicheff mulai posesif dan menganggap bahwa perempuan yang dia nikahi bukan perempuan yang baik. Kecemburuan ini diperkuat dengan adanya Troukhatchevsky, seorang yang dulu pernah akrab dengan Posdnicheff, kembali ke kehidupan rumah tangganya. Karena kesamaan hobi dengan istrinya, terjadilah kedekatan antara istri Posdnicheff dan Troukhatchevsky dalam perihal musik.

Karena kecemburuan inilah yang membuat Posdnicheff menjadi seekor binatang yang buta dan tega membunuh istrinya sendiri. Hanya dengan prasangka perasaan yang semula dikiranya cinta, ia tega menghilangkan nyawa seorang perempuan yang telah melahirkan anak-anaknya, yang selalu menemani tidurnya.

Ada sensasi di dalam buku setebal 160 halaman yang mampu membawa saya masuk ke dalam ranah sosial di Rusia pada zaman Tolstoy. Seakan-akan saya sedang membaca serpihan kecil sejarah bangsa Rusia. Pada buku ini terlihat jelas aliran filsafat moral Leo Tolstoy, konflik demi konflik disusun bersamaan dengan alur latar belakang sosial pada masa itu, di mana etika kebangsawanan masih menempel dengan kentalnya. Sisi demi sisi diceritakan melalui kalimat-kalimat khas Tolstoy yang rumit. Ruang lingkup cerita (hanya pada hubungan suami istri dan pihak ketiga) yang kecil membuat kita terarah kepada alur cerita yang jelas namun pada akhir cerita yang tetap sulit untuk ditebak. Tampaknya sonata dari Beethoven juga ikut menginspirasi Tolstoy dalam penulisan buku ini.

Novel ini ditutup dengan kutipan dari Injil Matius ayat V. 28, “bahwa siapapun yang memandang seorang perempuan dengan nafsu berarti dia telah melakukan zina,” dan kata-kata ini berkaitan dengan istri, saudari, dan tidak hanya kepada istri orang lain, namun terutama istri kita sendiri.

Bagi saya, Posdnicheff ingin memberi kita suatu ajaran moral bahwa perlu sebuah pertanyaan baru untuk cinta. Bahwa cinta, lantas menikah bukan sekedar euforia perasaan yang harus dilegalkan. Pernikahan harus disandarkan pada sebuah pernikahan moral. Terdengar utopis, tapi hal ini layak dicoba dan buatlah komitmen tentang moralitas pernikahan seperti apa yang akan kalian sepakati. Kapal seperti apa yang akan kalian gunakan untuk berlayar. Perjudian itu tak perlu diakhiri, tapi kita perlu memenangkannya. [ ]

 

* Penulis adalah peserta Bengkel Menulis GLI angkatan ke-VI dan anggota GLI.

24 Agustus 2014

 

 

 

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