Dongeng Gagak dari Rahmad
Sep 27, 2014
NYANYIAN BABU
Sep 27, 2014

Menangkap Fenomena Lebaran dan Takbiran

Oleh: Agung Hidayat **

 

Kejadian ini terjadi pada 1994, di mana satu Syawal yang ditetapkan pemerintah kembali berbeda dengan yang diyakini ormas Islam Nahdhatul Ulama (NU). Selama hampir 50 tahun Indonesia merdeka, ini kali ketiga secara berturut-turut Idul Fitri NU berbeda dengan pemerintah. Yang menggembirakan, tidak ada kekakuan di tengah masyarakat dalam perbedaan ini. Baik itu di ibukota maupun daerah, semuanya saling menghargai.

Warga NU yang berada di Jakarta tidak melaksanakan shalat Ied lantaran tidak ada masjid yang menyelenggarakannya. Hal ini dikarenakan warga Jakarta lainnya telah bersatu Syawal hari kemarin. Pun demikian, pada hari malam di mana puasa berakhir bagi warga Jakarta tidak ada semarak takbiran berlangsung di jalan-jalan. Sebagian besar warga Jakarta saat itu mengikuti rukyatul hilal pemerintah.

 

Amatan Gus Dur

Ada dua hal yang menyebabkan tulisan Gus Dur itu menyenangkan untuk dibaca. Pertama, karena Gus Dur dengan segala kepiawaiannya mampu mendeskripsikan fenomena yang tampak di kehidupan sosial saat itu. Kepiawaiannya dalam mendeskripsikan merupakan salah satu hal yang membuat tulisan Gus Dur selalu berkesan menyegarkan. Dalam tulisannya, Gus Dur selalu menjadikan dirinya sebagai pengamat yang arif, cermat, dan tidak menggurui dalam menuturkan gagasan. Sehingga, suatu konflik yang biasanya ia gambarkan dalam tulisan tidak akan menyinggung perasaan pihak yang diceritakan.

Kedua, tulisan Gus Dur menyenangkan karena ia sangat sensitif dalam mengamati gejala sosial. Keberadaannya sebagai seorang tokoh masyarakat menguntungkan, karena Gus Dur sangat dekat dengan berbagai persitiwa yang menjadi objek tulisannya. Maka dari itu tak heran, tulisan-tulisannya sebagian besar bercerita seputar masalah sosial yang ada di lingkungan dirinya. Seperti tulisan ini yang menceritakan perbedaan satu Syawal antara NU dan pemerintah. Beliau yang berlatar belakang NU memaparkan bagaimana perbedaan itu tidak menghasilkan huru-hara dan rusaknya tata krama sosial. Ia mencontohkan dirinya dan warga NU di Jakarta lainnya memilih tidak melaksanakan shalat Ied. Tidak hanya karena masjid di ibukota tidak ada yang menyelenggarakannya, tetapi lebih kepada keadaan yang istiqmal. Shalat Ied memang hukumnya sunnah muakkad, tetapi kondisi yang tidak memungkinkan menyebabkan status hukumnya bisa berubah dengan pertimbangan tata krama sosial. Lagipula menurut Gus Dur, ibadah yang sangat dianjurkan itu tidaklah apa-apa ditinggalkan karena bukan ibadah wajib.

Dengan latar belakang NU yang sangat kental, Gus Dur tidak bisa meninggalkan kebudayaan NU begitu saja. Semangat terhadap penghargaan akan perbedaan diwujudkan Gus Dur yang setia melakukan penyesuaian budaya. Sehingga ia membanggakan watak warga NU ini dalam tulisannya, Ini menunjukkan besarnya kesetiaan melakukan penyesuaian budaya (culture adjustment) di kalangan warga NU yang berada di Jakarta atau kota-kota besar lain.

 

Menyampaikan bukan menggurui

Gus Dur menuliskan bahwa perbedaan penetapan Idul Fitri antara NU dan pemerintah ialah kenyataan empirik yang menarik bagi kajian Antropologi. Lewat tulisannya ini, Ia menyampaikan idenya tentang dua kultur yang berhadapan. Kultur tersebut ialah kultur atas dan kultur bawah; yang berhadapan bukan hanya sekadar mengubah nilai dan membenturkan kultur, tetapi ada suatu manajemen konflik politik yang canggih.

Lewat idenya tersebut, Gus Dur tidak memaksakan pengamatannya menjadi keharusan untuk dicerna bulat-bulat. Ia menyediakan ruang yang lapang untuk diskursus yang lebih dalam lagi. Hal ini terlihat dari kalimat akhir dalam tulisannya yakni, Tentu saja sangat menarik untuk ditelusuri lebih jauh mengenai penyesuaian budaya ini.

 

* Tulisan ini merupakan review dari tulisan berjudul “Lebaran Tanpa Takbiran” karya Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur), yang dimuat di dalam buku Tuhan Tidak Perlu Dibela (1999), sebuah kumpulan tulisan dari Gus Dur.

** Penulis adalah peserta Bengkel Menulis GLI angkatan ke-IV. Tulisan ini adalah tugas dari sesi “Belajar dari Maestro”, sesi Bengkel Menulis yang mewajibkan peserta membedah karya dari seorang penulis menurut pilihannya.

 

 

26 September 2014

 

 

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