Belajar dari Kebangkrutan Mondragon: Keterbatasan Kooperasi dalam Sistem Kapitalisme*
Nov 5, 2014
SASTRA, “KRIMINALITAS”, DAN INKONSISTENSI: Respons Terbuka kepada Satrio Aris Munandar
Nov 18, 2014

Kelemahan Giant Sea Wall Jakarta

14 November 2014

Bosman Batubara

Alumnus Interuniversity Programme in Water Resources Engineering, Katholieke

Universiteit Leuven dan Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgia

Dalam masterplan National Capital Integrated Coastal Development (NCICD)—dokumen perencanaan yang di dalamnya terdapat giant sea wall—disebutkan bahwa tujuan utama masterplan itu adalah untuk menyediakan perlindungan jangka panjang bagi Kota Jakarta dari banjir, baik yang datang dari laut maupun sungai di daerah pantai, sembari pada saat yang bersamaan memfasilitasi pembangunan sosio-ekonomi. Dengan kerangka perkembangan pengetahuan dalam manajemen banjir dan konteks historis Jakarta dan Indonesia, tulisan ini menyediakan kontra argumentasi dan alternatif terhadap NCICD.

Kontra argumentasi pertama muncul dari lapangan socio-hydrology. Sejak terbitnya artikel berjudul “Socio-Hydrology: A New Science of People and Water” (Sivapalan, Savenije, dan Bloschl2011), paradigma manajemen banjir bergerak dari paradigma yang cenderung berbasis teknik berupa struktur hidrologi ke paradigma yang melihat bahwa ada koevolusi antara manusia dan sistem air. Socio-hydrology mempelajari bagaimana manusia mengorganisir hidupnya dalam waterscape. Penanda koevolusi adalah munculnya variasi “sikap baru” sebagai umpan balik antara proses-proses yang melibatkan manusia dan air dalam berbagai skala, di mana variasi “sikap baru” ini diyakini sudah melewati limit sistem koevolusi, dan besar kemungkinan sebelumnya tidak diperkirakan sama sekali.

Dalam kasus manajemen banjir, kita perlu lebih dulu melihat morfologi “dataran banjir”. Dataran banjir adalah daerah yang sangat subur. Peradaban Mesopotamia dan Mesir dibangun di daerah tepi sungai pada sepanjang floodplain. Desa-desa di Sumatra di daerah Bukit Barisan juga selalu berjejer mengikuti aliran sungai di igir-igir. Mayoritas Jakarta adalah dataran banjir yang di dalamnya mengalir tiga belas sungai, ditambah daerah delta di muara. Alasan kegemaran manusia tinggal di daerah floodplain adalah karena secara ekologi daerah ini menawarkan kondisi yang bagus untuk perkembangan peradaban, pertanian, serta perdagangan. Mudah dibayangkan, banjir biasanya membawa soil dari daerah hulu dan mengendapkannya di floodplain. Ini adalah area yang sangat subur bagi pertanian. Tubuh air sendiri mempermudah akses ke pedalaman karena sungai bisa diarungi oleh kapal-kapal untuk keperluan perdagangan.

(dok: www.harianterbit.com)

Seiring waktu, terjadi evolusi dalam sistem produksi pangan serta ekonomi dari pramodern menjadi kapitalisme industri. Banyak kelompok masyarakat yang tinggal di floodplain sudah tidak bersandar lagi pada sektor-sektor di atas, terutama pertanian, untuk penghidupannya. Namun, floodplain telah berkembang menjadi permukiman yang ramai. Sembilan dari sepuluh aglomerasi perkotaan terbesar di dunia berlokasi di floodplain dan daerah delta (di Baldassarre et al. 2013). Dengan demikian, populasi ini berhadapan dengan risikonya: banjir.

Secara ekologis, floodplain memang berfungsi sebagai area penampungan air ketika terjadi banjir. Debit air yang besar pada musim banjir tertampung di daerah floodplain. Namun, dengan berkembangnya manusia serta sistem produksinya di daerah floodplain, air kehilangan area untuk menampungnya ketika datang aliran yang tinggi. Sebagai konsekuensinya, banjir melanda permukiman-permukiman di floodplain. Jakarta termasuk ke dalam tipe ini.

Struktur hidrologi adalah solusi manusia menghadapi banjir. Sejarah menjadi saksi pembangunan berbagai macam struktur hidrologi di Jakarta, seperti kanal, bendungan, pintu-pintu air, dan terakhir adalah giant see wall—yang menjadi pokok bahasan tulisan ini. Justru di sini masalahnya. Kalau kita cermati, semua usaha perlindungan terhadap banjir di atas adalah struktur teknik. Dengan kata lain, paradigma yang ada dalam manajemen banjir Jakarta adalah paradigma ilmu teknik. Mengapa ini menjadi masalah?

Di sini kita masuk ke isu koevolusi antara manusia dan air. Interaksi dua arah ini terjadi ketika masyarakat memobilisasi kapital, political will, dan keahlian saintifik untuk membangun struktur hidrologi seperti tanggul guna melindungi floodplain dari banjir. Lalu orang merasa aman tinggal di daerah floodplain. Area floodplain kemudian berkembang menjadi area yang padat, dan tak jarang adalah area industri. Inilah “sikap baru” yang muncul sebagai “umpan balik” terhadap pembangunan struktur hidrologi seperti tanggul.

Masalahnya, di sini kita berhadapan dengan “efek penanggulan”—karena tanggul justru mempertinggi risiko banjir. Memang benar terjadi penurunan frekuensi banjir dengan probabilitas besar dan risiko kecil karena masyarakat terlindungi oleh tanggul. Tetapi, risiko bergeser ke banjir dengan probabilitas kecil dengan dampak yang katastrofik, yaitu manakala aliran melampaui atau menjebol tanggul.

Dasar pemikirannya sederhana. Tanggul didesain dengan ketahanan menghadapi banjir, misalnya yang datang dalam waktu sekali dalam seribu tahun. Inilah probabilitas. Bagaimana dengan banjir dengan probabilitas yang lebih kecil, misalnya datang sekali dalam seribu lima ratus tahun? Kalau kalkulasi akurat, maka tanggul akan terlampaui atau jebol. Inilah banjir dengan probabilitas kecil tetapi memiliki dampak katastrofik—karena tanggul terlampaui atau jebol dan orang sudah banyak bermukin di area yang (dipersepsikan) dilindungi oleh tanggul.

Kesadaran stokastik inilah yang membuat manajemen banjir justru bergerak ke arah yang lebih ekologis. Di Amerika Serikat muncul manajemen banjir dengan paradigma rekoneksi floodplain (Opperman et al. 2009). Sementara di Belanda muncul manajemen banjir di sungai Rhine, Meuse, Waal, Ijssel, dan Lek dengan sistem Room for the River yang tujuan utamanya adalah memperlebar sungai untuk meningkatkan kapasitasnya (van Herk 2014). Artinya, sungai malah diberikan ruang dengan kapasitas aliran yang lebih besar. Bukan ditanggul.

Dalam kasus giant sea wall di Jakarta, “sikap baru” dalam konteks koevolusi manusia dan air pasti muncul karena memang proyek NCICD “ditumpangi” oleh, atau “menumpang” pada, proyek reklamasi laut untuk area permukiman. Selain itu, struktur tanggul raksasa ini akan menjadi artefak dominasi pendekatan teknik dalam tata kelola banjir Jakarta.

Kontra argumentasi kedua menyangkut bagian kedua tujuan utama NCICD: memfasilitasi pembangunan sosio-ekonomi. Masterplan ini menyampaikan bahwa desain dasar tembok yang disebut dengan “Garuda Raksasa” ini akan menyediakan tempat tinggal bagi 650.000 orang di area reklamasi. Persis di sini masalahnya.

Persoalan akut dengan Indonesia, bukan hanya Jakarta, pada tiga puluh dua tahun Orde Baru (Orba) adalah pembangunan yang sangat kota-sentris. Kita melihat bagaimana populasi Jakarta meningkat dari hanya 23.068 orang pada 1673; 1.349.625 pada 1949; meledak menjadi 6.164.848 pada 1985, hingga 9,5 juta pada 2010. Makna pertumbuhan populasi Jakarta ini adalah: kebijakan Jakarta-sentris Orba telah memacu urbanisasi sehingga Jakarta menjadi sesak manusia. Masterplan NCICD belum lepas dari paradigma Jakarta-sentris. Ada rencana membangun proyek besar di Ibukota dan menjadikannya magnet untuk permukiman lebih dari setengah juta manusia.

Padahal, kalau kita lihat, berbagai akar persoalan terjadinya banjir Jakarta tidak bisa dilepaskan dari populasi yang terlalu padat. Misalnya, esktraksi berlebihan terhadap air tanah karena kebutuhan populasi telah menyebabkan penurunan permukaan tanah. Pada 1982–2010 tercatat penurunan antara 1–15 sentimeter. Bahkan di beberapa lokasi sampai pada angka 20–28 sentimeter (Abidin et al. 2011). Untuk manajemen sampah, penelitian pada 2000-an menunjukkan bahwa 30 persen sampah yang ada di Jakarta dibuang langsung ke sungai atau saluran air (Texier 2008), sehinga menyumbat aliran. Proyek NCICD, sadar atau tidak, adalah bagian dari magnet yang menyedot urbanisasi ke Jakarta. Dengan lain kata, potensial menambah beban lingkungan Jakarta.

Dengan dua kontraargumentasi paradigmatik di atas, maka tulisan ini menyarankan agar proyek ini dibatalkan. Apalagi jika kita hubungkan dengan agenda presiden-wakil presiden terpilih Jokowi-JK, yang dalam Nawa Cita menyebutkan akan “membangun Indonesia dari pinggiran dengan memperkuat daerah-daerah dan desa dalam kerangka negara kesatuan”. Jadi, bukan dari Kota Jakarta seperti yang dibayangkan proyek NCICD yang memiliki nilai sekitar 600 triliun rupiah ini.

Sebagai alternatifnya, Jakarta dapat mengimplementasikan pengelolaan banjir ekologis dan terpadu antara area tangkapan air dan floodplain. Termasuk di sini adalah menyisir kemungkinan melakukan restorasi floodplain dan mendesain rekoneksi floodplain melalui arsitektur lanskap. Mengingat adanya koevolusi antara manusia dan air, maka pembangunan Jakarta-sentris harus dihentikan untuk mengurangi laju urbanisasi ke Jakarta, atau kalau perlu memindahkan penduduknya, untuk mengurangi beban lingkungan di Ibukota. []

 

Acuan Pustaka

Abidin, H.Z., H. Andreas, I. Gumilar, Y. Fukuda,Y.E. Pohan,danT. Deguchi. 2011. “Land Subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and Its Relation with Urban Development.”Natural Hazard 59 (3): 1751–1771.

di Baldassarre, G., M. Kooy, J.S. Kemerink, danL. Brandimarte. 2013. “Towards Understanding the Dynamic Behaviour of Floodplains as Human-Water Systems.”Hydrology and Earth System Sciences17 (8): 3235–3244.

Opperman, J.J., G.E. Galloway, J. Fargione, J.F. Mount, B.D. Richter, dan S. Secchi. 2009. “Sustainable Floodplains through Large-Scale Reconnection to River.”Science 326: 1487–1488.

Sivapalan, M., H.H.G. Savenije, dan G. Bloschl. 2011. “Socio-Hydrology: A New Science of People and Water.”Hydrological Processes 26 (8): 1270–1276.

Texier, P. 2008. “Floods in Jakarta: When the Extreme Reveals Daily Structural Constraints and Mismanagement.”Disaster Prevention and Management 17 (3): 358–372.

van Herk, S. 2014. “Delivering Integrated Flood Risk Management: Governance for Collaboration, Learning and Adaptation.” Disertasi. Unesco-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft.

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