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Jogja Sold Out (?)

JUDUL tulisan ini sebenarnya adalah satire yang berkembang di masyarakat Yogyakarta selama beberapa tahun belakangan ini. Sindiran ini jelas merupakan ekspresi, sikap, bahkan kekecewaan yang dirasakan warga atas perkembangan kota Yogyakarta. Di samping itu, ada sindiran-sindiran lain, seperti “Jogja ora didol” atau “Jogja istimewa: hotelnya!”. Apa yang sesungguhnya terjadi?

Yogyakarta sebagai salah satu daerah yang dinamis terus membuka diri dengan pendatang baru. Sebagian dari mereka hanya tinggal sementara untuk menimba ilmu, berlibur, atau keperluan bisnis, sementara sebagian lainnya menetap menjadi warga Yogyakarta. Para tamu ini datang dari berbagai latarbelakang sosial-ekonomi, baik dari kalangan orang tidak mampu, kelas menengah, hingga orang-orang kaya. Bagi pelaku bisnis, jelas ini merupakan prospek besar dan menguntungkan. Berbagai jenis usaha pun muncul: warung internet, warung kopi, warung toko (ruko), swalayan, layanan jasa, dan lain-lain. Jenis usaha lain yang tengah marak adalah hunian. Usaha terakhir inilah yang menjadi fokus pembahasan saya.

Dinamika sosial yang tinggi di Yogyakarta berdampak pada isu hunian. Tata kelola kota dipaksa harus lebih responsif terhadap kehadiran para pendatang. Bagaimanapun mereka menjadi sumber pemasukan daerah yang penting. Masalahnya adalah siapakah yang bertanggungjawab terhadap penyediaan hunian mereka? Seharusnya pemerintahlah yang memegang kendali penuh untuk mengantisipasi kerancuan tata ruang wilayah. Akan tetapi, dalam implementasinya justru pengembanglah yang gencar untuk membangun hunian bagi para pendatang. Apa pedoman para pengembang untuk membangun berbagai hunian, baik apartemen dan perumahan berpagar (gated communities), apartemen, maupun hotel? Bisakah mereka menjamin bahwa pembangunannya tidak menimbulkan dampak lingkungan dan sosial?

Pembangunan apartemen, hotel, dan perumahan berpagar selama ini masih jauh dari harapan kebanyakan warga lokal. Meski di satu sisi barangkali membuka lapangan kerja, tetapi di sisi lain justru sangat destruktif terhadap lingkungan. Saya ingin memberikan beberapa contoh untuk memperjelas deskripsi tulisan ini.

Pertama, pembangunan hotel. Hotel disediakan untuk turis lokal maupun mancanegara yang tengah singgah di Yogyakarta. Sayangnya, dalam satu dekade terakhir, pembangunan hotel berjalan seperti tanpa sensor. Sampai detik ini, pembangunan hotel dengan ketinggian lebih dari 20 meter masih mudah dijumpai di jalan-jalan. Kapasitas dan ketersediaan air bagi hotel-hotel ini tentu sangat terbatas dan harus berebut akses dengan warga. Tidak sedikit warga yang mengeluh karena kekeringan air. Padahal, air adalah aset penting bagi manusia. Lihatlah video dokumenter “Belakang Hotel” yang dirilis komunitas Jogja Asat. Air menjadi barang langka.

Kedua, apartemen. Riset yang saya lakukan di daerah Sleman menunjukkan adanya kejanggalan perizinan pembangunan apartemen. Selama ini, Sleman tidak memiliki peraturan daerah (perda) tentang apartemen. Pembangunan apartemen hanya ditautkan pada “perda pemondokan”. Perda ini memang mengatur tentang hunian warga, tetapi justru mengecualikan apartemen. Kejanggalan lainnya, pembangunan apartemen di Jalan Kaliurang. Berdasarkan Rencana Detail Tata Ruang (KDTR), kawasan ini hanya diperuntukkan sebagai kawasan perdagangan dan jasa deret, tidak diperuntukkan bagi pembangunan apartemen. Tetapi, faktanya pembangunan apartemen berjalan mulus. Satu lagi, tahap perizinan pembangunan apartemen tidak memenuhi syarat yang ditentukan pemerintah. Misalnya, dokumen dan rekomendasi lingkungan Amdal harus lebih dulu terpenuhi sebelum mendapat izin lingkungan dan izin mendirikan bangunan (IMB). Yang terjadi justru sebaliknya; mereka mendapatkan izin mendirikan bangunan (IMB) terlebih dulu sebelum dokumen dan rekomendasi lingkungan Amdal dan izin lingkungan terpenuhi. Pertanyaannya, bagaimana mereka mendapat IMB?

Saya agak heran mengapa pemerintah begitu mudah memberi IMB kepada pengembang hunian, sementara tempat-tempat ibadah, seperti pada kasus Aceh Singkil, sangat problematis.

Ketiga, pembangunan gated communities. Hunian model ini juga menjadi tren di kalangan pendatang. Model perumahan ini berbeda dari model bangunan apartemen dan hotel. Model hunian gated communities sama dengan hunian masyarakat pada umumnya: horizontal. Fasilitas yang dimiliki tiap kompleks jelas berbeda. Semakin mahal harga unit rumah tersebut, maka semakin lengkap fasilitas yang tersedia. Penelitian saya di kawasan urban di Kabupaten Sleman, Bantul, dan Kota Yogyakarta menunjukkan angka yang signifikan. Hingga tahun 2014, ada 600 lebih kompleks gated communities. Ini belum termasuk kompleks yang sedang dan akan dibangun. Jumlahnya mungkin lebih besar lagi. Kenaikan pembangunan perumahan ini bisa dilihat dalam tabel di bawah ini.

Jumlah pembangunan komplek gated communities. Sumber: Data primer.

Jumlah pembangunan kompleks gated communities. (Sumber: Data primer)

Akan tetapi, hunian ini juga menuai banyak kritik, salah satunya karena menimbulkan sengketa tanah antara pengembang dan warga lokal. Di sisi lain, kecemburuan sosial, kelangkaan air, dan menyempitnya lahan pertanian tak bisa disembunyikan lagi dari deretan persoalan di Yogyakarta.

Ada dampak serius yang mesti diperhatikan oleh pemerintah karena kelalaian ini. Pertama, konflik sosial. Konflik sosial bisa jadi muncul karena akumulasi kekecewaan masyarakat terhadap komersialisasi hunian di tanah mereka. Kelangkaan air yang notabene sebagai kebutuhan dasar hidup manusia terus menjadi tuntutan warga hingga masalah itu terselesaikan.

Kedua, segregasi sosial. Pada tahap selanjutnya, segregasi sosial antara warga pendatang dan warga lokal sangat mungkin terjadi. Perbedaan tata nilai, adat, dan budaya masyarakat lokal dengan pendatang adalah salah satu variabel yang bisa menjadi contoh. Tentu amat sulit bagi kelas menengah atas untuk mencair dengan masyarakat yang memiliki perbedaan mencolok. Ini bukan berarti mereka tidak bisa bergaul sama sekali. Tetapi, dari fakta yang ada, perilaku sosial kelas pekerja di Yogyakarta yang hidup di hunian mewah memang sangat sulit untuk membaur.

Ketiga, menurunnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap pemerintah. Pemerintah selaku penyelenggara pembangunan jelas memiliki wewenang penuh untuk memberikan izin kepada pengembang untuk mendirikan hunian. Hal inilah yang dilihat oleh masyarakat sebagai akar persoalan. Bahkan, mereka menganggap persoalan yang sebenarnya bukan antara warga dan pengembang, melainkan antara warga dan pemerintah. Jika pemerintah tidak memberikan izin kepada pengembang, pembangunan hotel, apartemen, dan hunian berpagar tidak akan berjalan. Kuncinya jelas ada di pemerintah, dalam hal ini adalah badan eksekutif (bupati). Karena itu, mereka terus melakukan perlawanan terhadap pemerintah, salah satunya dengan melayangkan (mengirim) aspirasi kepada anggota dewan yang membela mereka.

Dengan demikian, jelaslah bahwa “Yogya Sold Out” ini bukan sekadar orasi seni, melainkan pula cermin perlawanan terhadap jaringan kekuasaan pemerintah dengan pemodal seperti digemakan oleh komunitas Jogja Asat. Perlawanan ini tetap hidup di tengah keriuhan Yogyakarta yang “istimewa” ini. []

Ahmad Fadli Azami
Ahmad Fadli Azami
Mahasiswa Sosiologi, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Ia banyak meneliti isu-isu sosial, seperti perubahan sosial, tata ruang kota, perdesaan, gender, ketahanan pangan, dan kemiskinan.

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