“Yang Terpanggil Tanah Air”: Praktik Politik-Seni di Indonesia Masa Kini
Oct 9, 2015
Doa Mengusir Pabrik Semen
Oct 16, 2015

Hatta dan Negara Kooperasi: Ikhtisar dari Persoalan Ekonomi Sosialis Indonesia

sumber: http://d.gr-assets.com/books/1275624634l/8380270.jpg

KETIKA Persoalan Ekonomi Sosialis Indonesia (PESI) diterbitkan oleh PT Djambatan pada 1963, semangat revolusi kemerdekaan masih menggelora. Penghapusan atas praktik dan relasi kolonial di Indonesia sedang gencar-gencarnya dilakukan. Hatta, sebagai intelektual sekaligus orang yang pernah punya pengalaman panjang sebagai pemimpin politik di negeri ini, ikut ambil bagian sumbang pikir dan tenaga untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut. Tulisan ini merupakan ikhtisar singkat tentang PESI yang dihadirkan ke sidang pembaca guna mengingatkan dan membuka kembali perdebatan tentang kooperasi, yang sejak era Orde Baru hingga sekarang mengalami pendangkalan makna dan praktiknya secara serius.

Dalam PESI, Hatta memfokuskan pembahasan pada dasar ideologi dan praktik berkooperasi di Indonesia, dan kemudian diikuti paparan tentang rintangan dan tantangan yang dihadapi kooperasi di masa itu dan masa yang akan datang.

Persoalan Ekonomi Sosialis Indonesia

Secara ideologi, menurut Hatta, sosialisme yang berkembang di Indonesia adalah titik temu antara tiga terma: perjuangan kelas, ta’awun (tolong-menolong), dan gotong royong. Tiga istilah pokok itu diambil dari sosialisme ilmiah Karl Marx, sosialisme Islam, dan sosialisme keindonesian.

Perjuangan kelas, bagi Hatta, sebagaimana halnya Marx, adalah perjuangan kaum proletar untuk merebut alat produksi dari tangan kapitalis. Cara yang harus ditempuh kaum proletar adalah dengan ta’awun dan gotong royong, yaitu kerja kolektif yang kooperatif hingga alat produksi menjadi kepunyaan orang banyak. Setelah alat produksi dimiliki sepenuhnya oleh kaum proletar, barulah proses “produksi dijalankan oleh orang banyak, untuk orang banyak, di bawah pimpinan badan-badan masyarakat yang bertanggung jawab kepada orang banyak”.

Hatta menekankan pentingnya kesadaran sejarah sosial sebagai landasan perjuangan kelas di Indonesia. Dalam sejarah sosialnya, masyarakat Indonesia sejak lama hidup bergaul secara kolektif kooperatif. Hal ini tercermin dalam pepatah “berat sama dipikul, ringan sama dijinjing, sedih sama diderita dan gembira sama dirasa”. Lebih jauh, Hatta mengatakan bahwa jalan menuju kesadaran sejarah sosial itu ada dua, yaitu organisasi dan pendidikan sosial.

Dalam praktiknya, pascakemerdekaan, ideologi kapitalisme dan individualisme yang dibawa oleh pemerintahan kolonial masih mendapatkan tempat di Indonesia, bahkan semakin kuat. Korporasi multinasional berhasil menggaet kapitalis-kapitalis kecil Indonesia, yang pada akhirnya menjadi kaki-tangan bangsa asing di negeri sendiri. Mereka memeras keringat bangsa sendiri dan menguras kekayaan rakyat untuk dijual kepada asing. Ini adalah bukti nyata bahwa organisasi dan pendidikan sosial belum lagi dilakukan dengan benar.

Menurut Hatta, untuk melepaskan cengkeraman dan menyaingi kapitalis internasional, individualisme nasional musti berkumpul dan menyatukan langkah di bawah payung masyarakat kooperasi nasional, kooperasi ekonomi. Hanya lewat jalan ini, ekonomi rakyat bisa berdaulat. Lagi-lagi, kuncinya ada pada organisasi dan pendidikan sosial.

Sebelum rakyat mampu menjalankan pengelolaan sumberdaya secara kolektif dan kooperatif sepenuhnya, sebagaimana Marx, Hatta menyerahkan pengelolaan sumberdaya rakyat kepada negara sembari rakyat mempersiapkan kekuatan dan kemapanan kooperasi. Kooperasi inilah yang pada gilirannya akan menggantikan negara, mulai dari kooperasi desa, kooperasi kecamatan, sampai kooperasi nasional. Semua dikelola berdasarkan prinsip kooperatif. Di samping mengelola alat produksi bersama untuk kepentingan rakyat, negara punya tanggung jawab untuk menyelenggarakan pendidikan sosial. Begitu merdeka, cita-cita ini dituangkan dalam UUD 1945 pada Pasal 33, 27 ayat 2, dan 34.

Praktik Berbicara Lain

Dalam praktiknya, jalan menuju negara kooperatif tidak semudah yang dibayangkan, bahkan terkesan jauh panggang dari api. Pengambilalihan kepemilikan alat produksi dari perusahaan kolonial asing tidak sepenuhnya terwujud, sehingga langkah Indonesia semakin terseok-seok dalam realisasi cita-cita negara kooperatif. Bahkan, penetrasi perusahaan asing ke Indonesia semakin menjadi-jadi.

Dalam analisis Hatta, ada dua hal yang menjadi penghambat. Pertama, masyarakat Indonesia belum mampu memahami teori, apalagi untuk menerjemahkannya ke dalam praktik. Hal ini merupakan tugas intelektual untuk bergerak mengorganisir rakyat sembari memberikan pendidikan sosial. Kedua, ketidakmampuan intelektual untuk membaca dinamika masyarakat. Intelektual cenderung memaksakan pemikirannya tanpa melihat dinamika yang ada dalam masyarakat. Pola pendekatan, pengorganisasian, dan pendidikan yang diterapkan harus mengena, sehingga masyarakat bergerak atas kemauan sadarnya dan kesadarannya.

Di sisi lain, negara sebagai pengelola sumberdaya rakyat belum mampu menjalankan tugasnya dengan benar. Tarik-ulur antara kepentingan pribadi (individualis) dan orang banyak (sosialis) acapkali terjadi di lapangan. Alat produksi yang seyogianya digunakan untuk kepentingan bersama sesekali disalahgunakan untuk mencari keuntungan pribadi. Hal ini terjadi karena mekanisme pengawasan oleh rakyat (anggota kooperasi negara) belum berjalan. Ditambah lagi, proses distribusi barang yang macet. Akhirnya, ruang untuk korupsi terbuka lebar.

Karena itu, kesadaran kooperasi harus bergerak dua arah, dari bawah dan dari atas, dengan organisasi dan pendidikan sosial sebagai motornya.

Ketika cita-cita negara kooperasi menjadi nyata, maka sampailah cita-cita Hatta: “Dalam sosialisme (negara kooperasi), tidak ada kemiskinan hidup.” []

Muhammad Imam Abdul Azis
Muhammad Imam Abdul Azis
Koordinator Biro Kedaulatan Ekonomi (BKE) Gerakan Literasi Indonesia (GLI) dan mahasiswa Pascasarjana Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Gadjah Mada.

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  91. Maulana says:

    Sumbang pendapat.
    Konsep asas koperasi Indonesia oleh Hatta direduksi dalam pasal 33 ayat (4) UUD 1945 (Amandemen). Terjadi tabrakan klausul antara pasal 33 ayat (1): “Perekonomian disusun sebagai usaha bersama berdasar atas asas kekeluargaan.” Dan ayat (4): “Perekonomian nasional diselenggarakan berdasar atas demokrasi ekonomi dengan prinsip keadilan, kebersamaan efisiensi berkeadilan, berkelanjutan, berwawasan lingkungan, kemandirian, serta dengan menjaga keseimbangan kemajuan dan kesatuan ekonomi nasional”.

    Tanyakan Amin Rais kenapa demikian…hehehehe..