TNI AD Kembali Berusaha Memagari Tanah Warga Urutsewu
Jun 24, 2015
Frankurt Book Fair 2015 dan Kebohongan Tentang Kepeloporan Dua Penulis Perempuan Indonesia
Jun 25, 2015

Frankfurt Book Fair dan Perdagangan Orang

Oleh: AS Laksana

Kaget saya! Rupanya ada perbincangan seru di wall Facebook Linda Christanty tentang Frankfurt Book Fair (FBF) 2015. Saya senang membacanya. Akhirnya ada juga yang bersuara keras. Dalam percakapan-percakapan ringan, beberapa kawan saya para penulis sering gremang gremeng mengungkapkan unek-unek mereka, tetapi tidak ada yang memulai buka suara sampai akhirnya Linda menuliskan pendapatnya secara terbuka dalam status tersebut—yang saya bagikan tepat di bawah status ini.

Tahun ini Indonesia menjadi Tamu Kehormatan FBF (dan mungkin hanya satu kali ini) dan kita bisa merasakan kesan bagaimana Laksmi Pamuntjak dipersiapkan sebagai bintang utama. Saya bilang kesan karena sebuah skenario, atau sesuatu yang dirancang di dalam pikiran, tidaklah mungkin diungkapkan secara eksplisit. Mustahil ada yang secara gila mengakui bahwa ia menyimpan skenario semacam itu.

Kita hanya bisa melihat bahwa berbagai ikhtiar diupayakan untuk itu. Pembicaraan tentang peristiwa 1965 diperkuat, forum-forum “pemanasan” diadakan, pemberitaan difokuskan ke arah itu, dan Laksmi menjadi figur pentingnya. Mungkin dialah yang terbanyak mendapatkan liputan media menjelang pameran buku Frankfurt dibandingkan penulis-penulis lain yang akan dihadirkan di sana—katanya akan ada 70 orang yang dibawa dan saya tidak tahu mereka itu siapa saja.

Ketika pembicaraan tentang 1965 menguat, tentu saja akan tampak masuk akal untuk mengedepankan Laksmi Pamuntjak. Ia menulis novel Amba yang bertema 1965.

Masuk akal? Tidak!

Tema yang diusung Indonesia sebagai tamu kehormatan adalah “17.000 Islands of Imagination”. Alih-alih memperkenalkan keberagaman tema karya sastra Indonesia atau mempromosikan imajinasi dari “17.000 pulau”, panitia Indonesia justru menyempitkan imajinasi dan menyelewengkannya ke peristiwa 1965 sebagai tema utama bayangan.

Katakanlah kita tidak berkeberatan karya bertema 1965 itu diselundupkan ke panggung utama dan dijadikan salah satu tema penting, tetapi kita juga bisa menyikapinya secara lebih kritis. Ada sejumlah penulis lain yang menulis novel dengan tema tersebut, dan beberapa dari mereka adalah korban atau keluarga korban, kenapa mereka tidak mendapatkan tempat dan tidak diperkenalkan kepada publik di Jerman? Saya tahu Ahmad Tohari dihadirkan juga, karena Trilogi Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk mengangkat tema 1965, Leila S. Chudori juga menulis novel dengan tema itu dan dibicarakan, tetapi tetap Laksmi Pamuntjak yang diarak sebagai bintang utama. Leila S. Chudori hanya figuran, di samping figuran-figuran lainnya termasuk Ahmad Tohari.

Dalam hal ini, Laksmi menjadi bintang utama hanya karena ia menulis novel bertema 1965—tanpa mempertimbangkan mutu karyanya.

Sekiranya tema 1965 dianggap sebagai salah satu yang penting untuk disodorkan kepada publik di Jerman, saya pikir mestinya ada telaah yang sungguh-sungguh untuk memilih yang terbaik di antara mereka. Apakah Amba lebih bagus atau lebih buruk dibandingkan Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk? Apakah Pulang lebih baik atau lebih buruk dibandingkan Blues Merbabu? Mana dari seluruh karya bertema 1965 itu yang terbaik?

Asahan Alham, 76 tahun, yang nama aslinya Asahan Aidit, salah seorang yang termasuk penulis eksil Indonesia, dalam sebuah komentar Facebook-nya tentang pembicaraan ramai yang dipicu oleh status Linda menuliskan, dalam huruf kapital semua:

“Tapi tokoh besar/dedengkot tua oportunis kanan-kiri PKI (Oporkaki PKI) yang bermukim di Belanda yang juga sering ulang-alik pergi ke Indonesia memuji-muji setengah mati dua pengarang perempuan ini bersama karyanya masing-masing Amba dan Pulang, yaitu karya Laksmi Pamuntjak dan Leila S. Chudori. Padahal seorang kritikus dan Indonesianis Perancis Henri Chambert-Loir mengatakan merasa muak setelah membaca Pulang-nya Chudori dan juga kata Henri buku ini sebuah kejahatan.”

Saya tidak tahu mana yang terbaik dari karya-karya bertema 1965. Saya bukan orang yang tergila-gila dengan tema itu, meskipun saya menyadari bahwa tema itu akan mudah diolah menjadi barang jualan untuk ditawarkan kepada publik Barat. Sebagai penulis, saya memiliki perhatian tersendiri terhadap situasi manusia hari ini yang tidak kalah runyamnya dibandingkan dengan situasi 1965. Sejumlah penulis lain juga mungkin seperti itu atau memilih tema-tema lainnya yang relevan dengan kepedulian mereka sendiri.

Kenapa panitia tidak memilih, misalnya, karya-karya terbaik sastra Indonesia dalam 50 tahun atau 25 tahun atau 10 tahun terakhir? Itu akan lebih masuk akal untuk dijalankan dan lebih bisa dipertanggungjawabkan. Panitia bisa mengumpulkan karya-karya sastra yang mendapatkan penghargaan pada tiap-tiap tahun atau mendapatkan pujian dari para kritikus yang berwibawa—kalau kritikus semacam itu ada dan terbukti memiliki ketekunan untuk mengamati karya sastra. Jika harus ada seleksi, karena tidak semua yang dibawa ke Frankfurt adalah buku sastra, maka tim seleksi bisa dibentuk untuk menentukan buku mana saja yang akan dibawa. Tetapi urusannya jelas: yang dipilih sejak awal adalah buku-buku yang mendapatkan penghargaan atau mendapatkan pujian para kritikus.

Dari sana kita akan bisa melihat keragaman tema dan mempertanggungjawabkan mutunya. Dari sana kita bisa memperkenalkan dunia sastra Indonesia dan perjalanan kepengarangan para penulis dari waktu ke waktu secara lebih utuh.

Atau kita bisa juga menyertakan karya-karya yang menjadi best-seller di dalam negeri dalam 10 tahun terakhir. Itu berguna untuk memperkenalkan kecenderungan pembaca Indonesia dan seperti apa buku-buku yang digemari. Yang jelas, ada kriteria yang bisa dijadikan pegangan dan itu akan menghindarkan kita dari perdebatan yang keruh, misalnya, tentang bekerjanya jaringan perkoncoan.

Mestinya pameran buku Frankfurt dimanfaatkan untuk memperkenalkan para penulis terbaik Indonesia. Akan sangat memalukan jika forum ini hanya digunakan untuk memperdagangkan orang-orang tertentu dan mengasongkannya ke mana-mana: “Inilah para penulis terbaik kami, yang sungguh besar jasanya dalam mendorong terjadinya perubahan di negeri kami.” Dan, entah kebetulan atau dengan kesengajaan (jika bicara desain saya tidak yakin ada kebetulan), mereka itu semua perempuan. Maka Deutsche Welle, media resmi pemerintah Jerman, pun menulis: “Yang cukup mengejutkan, kebanyakan yang memaksa Indonesia berhadapan dengan sejarah gelapnya adalah penulis perempuan.”

Saya yakin bahwa “keterkejutan” wartawan DW itu adalah produk atau dampak dari sebuah desain. Baru-baru ini saya mendapatkan informasi bahwa, demi kepentingan pameran buku Frankfurt juga, sekarang sedang disiapkan di Jerman sana buku tentang 9 pengarang perempuan Indonesia. Jika benar buku tersebut akan terbit nantinya, kita bisa dengan mudah menebak setidaknya 2 atau 3 nama yang sudah pasti masuk di dalamnya.

Untuk semua ini, paling banter kita hanya bisa berkomentar sengit, “Ya, sudah, kau makan sajalah semuanya.”

Saya akan mengakhiri tulisan ini dengan ingatan yang jauh ke masa lampau. Pada tahun 1935 Balai Pustaka pernah menerbitkan roman karya Anak Agung Pandji Tisna berjudul Ni Rawit Ceti Penjual Orang. Saya khawatir dalam kesastraan kita hari ini sosok Ni Rawit Ceti masih bergentayangan. Kalau ia seorang lelaki, kita bisa menyebutnya “Ki Rawit Ceti Penjual Orang”.

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