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Dua Puluh Perwujudan Birokrasi

 

Foto: http://kronosnews.com/

Foto: http://kronosnews.com/

Oleh Mao Tse Tung

Diterjemahkan oleh Dwi Cipta

 

1.  Orang yang berada di puncak birokrasi berpengetahuan sangat sedikit; mereka tak memahami apa yang diungkapkan massa rakyat; mereka tak menyelidik dan mempelajari sesuatu hal; mereka tak paham kebijakan-kebijakan spesifik; mereka tak melakukan kerja-kerja politis dan ideologis; mereka tercerai dari kenyataan, dari massa rakyat, dan dari kepemimpinan partainya; mereka selalu mengeluarkan perintah-perintah, dan biasanya perintah yangsalah, sehingga secara meyakinkan mereka tengah menyesatkan negeri dan rakyatnya; paling tidak mereka merintangi kepatuhan konsisten pada garis partai dan kebijakan-kebijakannya; dan mereka tidak bisa bertatap muka dengan massa rakyat. 

2.  Mau berwatak sombong atau baik, mereka mendiskusikan politik tanpa arah. Selain subyektif dan memandang sesuatu dari satu sisi, mereka tak memahami pekerjaan mereka sendiri; mereka ceroboh; mereka tak mendengar suara rakyat; mereka garang dan sewenang-wenang; mereka suka memaksakan perintah; mereka tak peduli pada kenyataan; mereka mempertahankan kontrol buta. Inilah yang disebut birokrasi otoriter.

3.  Mereka sangat sibuk dari subuh hingga tengah malam dan bekerja sepanjang tahun; mereka tak pernah terlibat dengan massa rakyat dan tak menyelidiki berbagai persoalan; mereka tak mempelajari kebijakan; mereka tak menyandarkan diri pada massa; mereka tak mempersiapkan pernyataan-pernyataannya; mereka tak merencanakan pekerjaannya. Inilah birokrasi bebal dan salah urus. Dengan kata lain, inilah yang disebut rutinisme.

4.  Perilaku birokratis mereka menyebar kemana-mana; namun tak bertujuan sama sekali; mereka egois; mereka memukul gong atau membunyikan klakson hanya supaya orang menyingkir; mereka membikin orang takut hanya dengan menatap mereka; Mereka melakukan berbagai bentuk kekerasan pada rakyat; gaya kerja mereka mentah; mereka tak memperlakukan orang secara setara. Inilah yang dinamakan birokrasi pertuanan.

5.  Mereka acuh-tak acuh; mereka malu bertanya apa pun yang tidak mereka ketahui; mereka suka berlebihan dan berdusta; mereka suka keliru; mereka menimpakan berbagai macam kesalahan pada rakyat sementara mengaku-aku segala yang baik dari dirinya sendiri; mereka menipu pemerintah pusat; mereka menipu orang-orang atasan dan membodohi para bawahan; mereka menyembunyikan berbagai kekeliruan dan tutup-mata atassemua perbuatan salah. Inilah birokrasi yang tak jujur.

6.  Mereka tak paham politik. Mereka mangkir dari pekerjaan; mereka menarik berbagai hal dari jamahan orang lain; mereka tak menjalankan tanggungjawabnya; mereka suka tawar-menawar; mereka suka menahan-nahan berbagai hal; mereka bengak dan kehilangan kewaspadaan. Inilah yang disebut birokrasi yang tak bertanggungjawab.

7.  Mereka lalai terhadap berbagai hal; mereka bertahan dengan berbagai cara; mereka tak punya kaitan apa pun dengan massa rakyat; mereka selalu membuat kekeliruan; mereka menawarkan diri mereka secara terhormat kepada atasan dan abai pada para bawahan; mereka sangat berhati-hati dalam setiap aspek; mereka bisa malih rupa dan selicin belut. Inilah birokrasi dari mereka yang bekerja sebagai pejabat dan hidup dari jabatannya.

8.  Mereka tak mempelajari politik secara penuh; mereka tak pernah mengalami kemajuan dalam kerjanya; cara bicara mereka tak bercitarasa; mereka tak memiliki arah dalam kepemimpinan; mereka mengabaikan kewajiban kantornya meski terus menarik gaji tiap bulan; mereka mengolah berbagai hal supaya tampak indah dari luar. Para pemalas ini (misalnya tuan tanah) tidak mau ambil inisiatif; mereka hanya berkonsentrasi pada kemalasannya; mereka yang bekerja, yang berbuat kebajikan, dan yang tidak berbuat seperti para pejabat itu diperlakukan dengan buruk. Inilah yang disebut dengan birokrasi penuh kepalsuan, birokrasi muspra.

9.  Mereka pandir; mereka kebingungan; mereka tak punya pikiran orisinal; mereka juga benar-benar tak rajin, berbuat seenaknya dan acuh tak acuh. Inilah yang disebut birokrasi pandir yang muspra.

10.  Mereka ingin orang lain membaca dokumen; sementara orang lain membaca, mereka justru tidur; mereka mengkritik tanpa menyaksikan lebih dulu; mereka mengkritik segala yang keliru dan menyalahkan orang lain; mereka menunjukkan diri mereka tak berhubungan dengan kekeliruan itu; mereka tak mendiskusikan segala sesuatu; mereka menyingkirkan hal-hal itu dan mengabaikannya; mereka berprasangka telah memahami orang-orang yang ada di bawahnya, ketika benar-benar tak memahaminya, mereka berpaling; dan mereka menyembunyikan ketidaksetujuan dengan para pejabat yang setara dengan mereka. Inilah yang disebut birokrasi pemalas.

11.  Kantor-kantor pemerintah tumbuh makin besar; berbagai urusannya jadi makin membingungkan; jumlah orang lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan pekerjaan. Mereka berputar-putar di tempatnya; mereka bertengkar dan cekcok; mereka tak sudi mengerjakan pekerjaan tambahan; mereka tak memenuhi kewajiban spesifiknya. Inilah birokrasi kantor pemerintahan.

12.  Dokument berlimpah; inilah birokrasi, instruksi terus berkembang biak; ada bertumpuk laporan tak terbaca yang tak dikritisi; banyak tabel dan jadwal dibuat dan tak terpakai; berbagai pertemuan digelar tapi tak ada yang dihasilkan; dan ada berbagai asosiasi yang berdekatan namun tak ada yang dipelajari. Inilah birokrasi atas birokrasi dan birokrasi formalistik.

13.  Mereka mengejar kesenangan namun jerih pada kerja keras; mereka membikin kesepakatan di belakang pintu; satu orang menjadi pejabat dan seluruh anggota keluarga memeroleh manfaatnya; satu orang mencapai nirwana dan semua antek-anteknya ikut juga terjunjung sampai ke surga; berbagai pesta dan hadiah disuguhkan. Inilah yang disebut birokrasi pengecualian.

14. Makin tinggi karirnya, makin buruk pula temperamennya; tuntutan untuk mendukung dirinya sendiri makin tinggi; rumah dan perlengkapannya jadi makin mewah; aksesnya pada berbagai hal makin lebih mudah. Mereka yang berada di strata lebih tinggi memeroleh bagian yang lebih besar sementara antek-antek bawahannya memeroleh bayaran tinggi; ada keroyalan dan kesukaan menghambur-hamburkan sesuatu. Inilah birokrasi penempatan jabatan di atas awan.

15.  Mereka egois; mereka memuaskan tujuan-tujuan pribadinya dengan sarana umum; ada penggelapan dan spekulasi; makin banyak melahap, mereka makin lapar; dan mereka tak pernah mundur atau menyerah. Inilah yang disebut birokrasi egoistik.

16.  Mereka berkelahi di antara mereka sendiri untuk mendapatkan kekuasaan dan uang; mereka meluaskan pengaruhnya ke partai; mereka menginginkan ketenaran dan keberuntungan; mereka menginginkan posisi dan, kalau tak mendapatkannya, rasa tak puas menjalari diri mereka; mereka memilih jadi gemuk dan kurus; mereka memberi perhatian besar pada besaran gaji; mereka begitu perhatian saat berada di lingkungan temannya namun tak peduli pada massa. Inilah birokrasi yang memperjuangkan kekuasaan dan uang.

17.  Kepemimpinan yang majemuk tak bisa disatukan secara selaras; mereka masuk lewat berbagai arah, dan mereka bekerja ketika keadaan kacau-balau; mereka berusaha saling menggerombol, yang berada di jabatan paling tinggi diceraikan dari mereka yang berada di jabatan paling rendah dan tak ada sentralisasi maupun demokrasi. Inilah birokrasi yang tercerai-berai.

18.  Tak ada organisasi; mereka mempekerjakan teman-teman pribadinya; mereka mempraktekkan faksionalisme dan memelihara hubungan-hubungan feodal; mereka membentuk klik untuk makin menanamkan kepentingan pribadi mereka sendiri; mereka saling melindungi, individu ini berdiri di atas segala sesuatu; pejabat kecil ini menyakiti massa rakyat. Inilah yang disebut sebagai birokrasi sektarian.

19.  Kemauan revolusioner mereka lemah; politik mereka telah membusuk dan mengubah karakternya; mereka memuji-muji para pejabat; mereka tak pernah menguji pikiran dan tangannya. Mereka memangsa jatahnya setiap hari; mereka menghindar dari kerja keras dengan mudah; mereka memanggil dokter walaupun tak sakit; mereka mengambil waktu libur ke pegunungan atau pantai. Mereka melakukan hal-hal dangkal; mereka kecewa kalau kepentingan pribadinya tak tercapai namun tak kecewa ketika kepentingan nasional dalam bentuk apa pun tak tercapai. Inilah yang disebut birokrasi yang membusuk.

20.  Mereka mempromosikan tendensi-tendensi yang ironis dan spirit reaksioner; mereka berkomplot dengan orang-orang jahatdan menolerir situasi yang buruk; mereka berhubungan dengan para bajingan dan menyelewengkan hukum; mereka berhubungan dengan spekulasi; mereka ancaman bagi partai dan negara; mereka menggencet demokrasi, mereka melawan dan melakukan balas dendam, mereka menerabas hukum dan peraturan; mereka melindungi yang buruk; mereka tak mampu membedakan diri kita dengan musuh-musuh. Inilah birokrasi dengan tendensi-tendensi dan reaksi ironis.

*Tulisan ini diterjemahkan oleh Dwicipta dari bahasa Inggris dengan judul “Twenty Manifestations of Bureaucracy.” Mao Tse Tung menulisnya pada bulan Februari 1970. Versi bahasa Inggris dari tulisan ini ada di website www.marxists.org.

Dwi Cipta
Dwi Cipta
Penulis cerita dan esai. Belajar menulis dan menerjemah secara otodidak. Kini sedang belajar di dunia penerbitan dengan ikut mendirikan dan menakhodai Literasi Press.

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