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Dua Pijar Gerakan Literasi di Yogyakarta

Inisiasi Sekolah Literasi “Rumah Baca Komunitas.

Begitu memasuki ruangan utama Rumah Baca Komunitas (RBK) yang berlokasi di dusun Sidorejo, Desa Ngestiharjo, Kasian, Bantul kita akan melihat banyak buku tersusun rapi. Komunitas yang menyediakan berbagai ragam bahan bacaan baik buku, majalah, e-book milik komunitas dan anggota ini tengah menyelenggarakan Sekolah Literasi bagi kalangan umum yang memiliki kepedulian terhadap persoalan literasi dalam masyarakat. Mereka mengundang berbagai pegiat literasi untuk menjadi fasilitator di sekolah baru bentukan mereka.

Lahirnya Rumah Baca Komunitas (RBK) berangkat dari kegelisahan pentingnya minat baca masyarakat di Indonesia. Latarbelakang ini membuat RBK menjadi komunitas mandiri di tengah masyarakat yang memiliki beberapa tujuan antara lain menggembirakan masyarakat dengan memasyarakatkan tempat baca yang menyenangkan, meningkatkan minat baca masyarakat khususnya anak-anak dan remaja di lingkungan sekitar, ikut berkonstribusi mendukung kegiatan belajar mandiri masyarakat lewat bahan bacaan bermutu dan aktual. Selain itu, rumah baca memikul satu misi besarnya yaitu mempromosikan nilai-nilai perdamian dalam masyarakat yang berkeanekaragaman melalui materi-materi bacaan yang memberikan pencerahan. Organisasi ini menata dirinya pelan-pelan dengan kesadaran membangun basis kelembagaan dan aksi literasi yang kokoh di kemudian hari.

Mulanya buku-buku yang ada di RBK milik pribadi, namun dalam perkembangannnya bertransformasi menjadi komunitas hingga ada yang titip asuh bukunya di tempat ini. RBK mengembangkan gerakan literasi yang berbasis ideologi kemandirian dan anti-diskriminasi lewat pembelajaran komunitas, pembukaan perpustakaan jalanan setiap hari minggu, pendidikan kritis, ekoliterasi (menyuarakan keadilan berbasis ekologi, menyuarakan yang bisu yang menjadi korban stigma dan diskriminasi.

Zakir, salah satu penggiat di RBK ini bercerita, “Selama ini kalau kita pinjam buku pasti ribet, harus meninggalkan identitas, dll. Tapi RBK hadir supaya hak membaca menjadi jaminan semua orang tanpa jaminan apapun dalam peminjaman buku. Sekaligus kita menanamkan budaya kepercayaan.”

Sekolah Literasi yang diselenggarakan oleh para pengelola dan pegiat RBK terdiri dari 5 kali pertemuan. Dalam pertemuan terakhir ini Gerakan Literasi Indonesia (GLI) diundang oleh mereka untuk menjadi fasilitator di kelas “Praksis advokasi Gerakan Literasi terhadap Kaum Tertindas.” Ada 25 orang yang turut serta dalam diskusi ini. Menurut pertimbangan pengurus RBK, GLI diminta untuk mengisi bagian terakhir dari Sekolah Literasi mengingat organisasi yang resmi berdiri pada 17 Juni 2013 tersebut cukup intens dan konsisten mengadvokasi beberapa kelompok tertindas dan menerbitkan beberapa buku sebagai upaya penyebaran gagasan.

(31/8) Sekolah Literasi ini diadakan dalam rangka mendistribusikan pengetahuan yang berbasiskan pada narasi perjuangan sekaligus proses pembebasan dan apresiasi identitas kultural melalui gerakan literasi. Sekolah literasi merupakan pelatihan bagi pesertanya yang bertujuan membentuk pemahaman tentang pentingnya rumah baca, pentingnya membangun gerakan literasi, metode-metode pengembangan gerakan literasi hingga pentingnya membangun gerakan literasi yang ideologis yang mempunyai visi kerakyatan.

Di awal, Dwi Cipta, anggota sekaligus salah satu inisiator GLI ini menyatakan bahwa GLI tidak melakukan advokasi/pendampingan. Yang dilakukan oleh GLI ketika berhubungan dengan kelompok-kelompok masyarakat yang sedang menghadapi persoalan ekonomi-sosial-budaya di sekitarnya adalah dengan bekerja bahu-membahu bersama masyarakat untuk mencari solusi dan bahkan menyelesaikan persoalan tersebut. Dengan begitu, posisi GLI dan masyarakat dimana GLI bekerja menjadi sama. Sementara terma advokasi/pendampingan ini akan dirasa menempatkan organizer dari luar dalam posisi lebih superior dibandingkan masyarakat. Setelah menjelaskan standing position GLI dalam hubungannya dengan masyarakat yang sedang berada dalamkondisi tertindas, ia menjelaskan tentang konseptualisasi gerakan literasi yang responsif terhadap persoalan isu-isu ekologi dan ruang publik. Diskusipun berlangsung.

Menanam Benih Literasi

Pada sesi tanya-jawab para peserta yang terprovokasi oleh uraian daripemateri melontarkan berbagai tanggapan. Menurut Fauzan, penggiat RBK, “Kita melihat literasi dimaknai secara sempit misalkan lewat hibah buku dan pengadaan taman baca. Di era pasca Orde Baru apa yang terjadi dari rumah baca? apakah adakah perubahan? Kredo utama gerakan literasi selama ini hanya dimaknai sebagai pembebasan buta huruf dari orde lama, orde baru, reformasi hingga pasca reformasi. Setelah refleksi ternyata tidak berubah. Literasi ternyata tidak memfasilitasi manusia pindah dari kondisi ketertindasan tapi justru melanggengkan sistem”.

Kegelisahan pun muncul dalam diskusi ini, salah satunya dari salah satu peserta Sekolah Literasi, Fathan. Dia bercerita bahwa seseorang bisa membeli 30 buku dalam 1 bulan tetapi gagasannya hanya mandeg di dalam kepala saja, tidak ada solusi ataupun pembacaannya terhadap kondisi Indonesia saat ini,. “Aku pusing mikir orang-orang seperti itu. Kita butuh orang yang sableng yang bisa merubah semua kebuntuan ini. Kalau orang bener, setelah sekolah itu kuliah lalu kerja selesai. Masa bodoh dengan isu-isu” katanya.

Bagai gayung bersambut, Dwi Cipta menceritakan pengalaman pribadi yang kemudian terkonfirmasi menjadi pengalaman banyak orang yang ia tanyai. Ketika SD dia mengenal orang sekampung, ketika SMP mengenal satu dusun, beranjak SMA hanya mengenal beberapa, saat Kuliah hanya mengenal tetangga sebelahnya saja. “Artinya, pendidikan formal yang dialami peserta didik justru menjauhkan anda dari masyarakat anda sendiri, anda tidak bisa menjadi agen perubahan di desa sendiri. Anda akan merasa superior dan lupa tentang pengetahuan yang dimiliki petani, pedagang sayur, pemilik warung, guru ngaji atau ulama, preman desa, dan berbagai kelompok masyarakat desa anda sendiri. Anda jadi tidak sadar bahwa interaksi serta ikatan sosial yang telah mereka bangun secara sadar dan tidak sadar telah berlangsung lama dan kuat. Di titik ini, ide-ide perubahan yang dibawa oleh orang yang secara formal telah meniti jalur pendidikan formal yang tinggi namun tercerabut dari masyarakatnya hanya tindakan mencangkok sesuatu yang asing dan tak sesuai dengan struktur masyarakat sejarah sosial-budayanya,” jelasnya.

Kegiatan ini bagaikan menanam pohon. Benih ditanam dengan harapan membuahkan hasil. Benihnya berupa gerakan literasi, gerakan membaca; melek; sadar diri dengan persoalan yang ada di sekitarnya. Gerakan literasi ini melakukan pencerdasan terhadap orang. Yang tidak membaca buku tidak akan bisa ikut dalam gerakan ini. Tetapi juga sebaliknya persoalan banyak membaca terkadang tidak teraktualisasikan secara konkrit. Melalui gerakan literasi ini diharapkan seseorang memiliki kesadaran terhadap apa yang dibaca. Berbagai gerakan pun dilahirkan dari pembacaan. Gerakan ini bisa dilakukan oleh satu orang seperti seseorang yang berkeliling meminjamkan bukunya dari satu tempat ke tempat yang lain tetapi jika dilakukan secara bersama akan memiliki efek yang lebih besar. Di akhir diskusi, Ahmad Sarkawi, penggagas RBK ini mengapresiasi diskusi ini. “Yang dilakukan RBK selama ini tidak diapresiasi banyak pihak. Namun mendengar paparan dari pemateri, saya sekarang yakin kita punya teman yang satu visi dan satu kesadaran. Di sini RBK dan GLI memiliki kesamaan. Salah satunya gagasan terhadap nilai yang dikembangkan oleh RBK yaitu ecoliterasi, untuk memberikan keberpihakan manusia terhadap alam”, tuturnya. []

Dewi Widyastuti
Dewi Widyastuti
Lulusan Bengkel Menulis Gerakan Literasi Indonesia (GLI) angkatan VII. Kini awak Biro Aksi dan Budaya GLI.

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