Mengapa Realisme Fantastik Tak Kunjung Lahir di Indonesia
Aug 25, 2014
Jawaban untuk Si “Ikan Kaleng”
Aug 25, 2014

Demokrasi Tanpa Media yang Demokratis?

Oleh: Dave Boyle *

Diterjemahkan oleh: Angga Palsewa Putra

Ilustrasi: iowaindependentsblog.com

Ilustrasi: iowaindependentsblog.com

Dapatkah Anda memiliki demokrasi yang sesungguhnya tanpa media (massa) yang demokratis? Ini adalah pertanyaan yang masih terbingkai dalam kerangka pandangan lawas, yang mengatakan bahwa selama media tidak dalam kendali negara (atau partai politik) maka media akan bebas berbicara secara luas dan dapat berfungsi sebagai sarana bagi warga negara untuk mengakses informasi, membentuk pandangan mereka, dan bertanggungjawab.

Konsepsi tersebut berlaku dalam era keberagaman yang memukau yang ditandai oleh ledakan surat kabar di negara-negara seperti Inggris dan Amerika Serikat pada pertengahan 1800-an dan seterusnya, di mana setiap helai pendapat bebas untuk diterbitkan dan pemerintah dituntut tanggungjawabnya dengan tingkat caci maki yang hanya dapat kita kagumi.

Tapi ketika surat kabar telah dimiliki oleh kelompok-kelompok kepentingan yang berkuasa—sebuah proses yang dimulai kurang lebih pada waktu yang sama—kita mengganti satu bentuk tirani dengan yang lain. Penelitian demi penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa sistem media menderita semacam pemakluman (groupthink), di mana isu-isu tertentu baru akan dianggap sudah di luar batas kewajaran sampai saat mereka benar-benar tidak dapat diabaikan. Hal ini terlihat paling jelas ketika berkaitan dengan isu-isu keamanan nasional; di Amerika Serikat dalam masa perang di Vietnam, kaum oposisi yang menentang perang pada awalnya diabaikan, kemudian diejek dan digambarkan dalam kesan negatif yang mencolok, sebelum gelombang opini di negara secara keseluruhan mulai tercermin dalam media-media yang mengangkat masalah tersebut.

Lagi dan lagi, media telah menunjukan dirinya sebagai cermin yang retak dan buram bagi masyarakat yang mengharapkan refleksi yang akurat dari informasi-informasi yang disajikannya, seringkali bahkan dengan keras kepala mempertahankannya sampai mereka tidak dapat lagi mengabaikan bukti-bukti nyata yang disodorkan ke muka mereka. Hingga kemudian, keabadian ortodoksi jurnalistik, ketelanjangan ideologi, dan kepentingan ekonomi dianggap jauh lebih penting.

Ada beberapa pilihan yang bisa dilakukan untuk menjawab mereka yang frustrasi terhadap krisis penyampaian kebenaran yang terjadi di media kita. Dengan mudah mereka bisa saja berhenti mengonsumsi media tersebut. Tapi, ini masih kurang menguntungkan. Selain menghemat pengeluaran yang selama ini digunakan untuk membeli surat kabar tersebut, hal itu tidak akan banyak mempengaruhi lanskap media dalam kaitannya dengan penyampaian kebenaran versi lain dalam kesadaran publik.

Kehadiran internet memberikan secercah harapan, ia mengembalikan sebuah keberagaman yang sudah tidak kita lihat lebih dari satu abad, namun tanpa perubahan sistem ekonomi media atau masyarakat dimana dia beroperasi, akankah masa depan baru ini menjadi berbeda? Apakah yang akan menghentikan keberagaman baru media ini dengan cara yang sama, misalnya, bergabung ke dalam beberapa alternatif jalan keluar yang ada untuk menjalankan peran dominan dalam berbagai tantangan yang dihadapi oleh masyarakat, dan respons seperti apa yang akan diberikan untuk memungkinkan masyarakat sipil membentuk pandangannya dan menuntut perubahan melalui proses yang demokratis?

Untuk menjamin bahwa media merefleksikan pandangan dari masyarakat yang kepadanya seharusnya dia mengabdi, media harus dimiliki oleh mereka yang menjadi tuannya tersebut, dan mereka yang menginginkan media menyampaikan informasi yang sebenar-benarnya. Yang menginginkan bahwa pengungkapan kebenaran ini tidak akan mengecualikan isu-isu yang ingin disembunyikan oleh pemilik yang berkuasa, atau mengatur anggaran yang berarti pengungkapan kebenaran akan dinomor-duakan untuk menghasilkan keuntungan yang sehat bagi pemiliknya.

Jika kita tidak mengendalikan media, pada akhirnya, kita yang akan dikendalikan olehnya, oleh orang-orang yang memilikinya, dan oleh orang-orang yang bekerja di dalamnya. Sejarah menunjukkan kapanpun rezim otoriter ingin memberangus perdebatan demokratis, yang pertama menjadi sasaran mereka adalah media—televisi, radio dan penerbitan. Komplotan makar di masa depan juga akan mencoba mengendalikan internet. Dan sebelum perpecahan itu direncanakan dan dijalankan, pihak yang berkuasa akan terus mencoba untuk memastikan media yang kita miliki menceritakan kisah-kisah di mana mereka sudah menjalankan peran mereka sebaik dan seindah mungkin; dengan demikian, untuk apa lagi anda harus memiliki surat kabar jika tidak menggunakannya sebagai megafon untuk disiarkan ke seantero negeri?

Badan usaha kooperasi sudah hampir 200 tahun menjadi sarana dimana individu terkecil di dalam komunitas terkecil bergandengan tangan untuk memperkuat suara dan kuasa mereka serta melakukan pengawasan melalui cara-cara yang demokratis.

Kooperasi telah didirikan di banyak tempat dalam sektor ekonomi dan kebudayaan yang paling mendasar—makanan dan hunian—namun kita juga dapat mendayagunakannya pada tingkat kebutuhan dan keinginan manusia yang lebih lanjut: untuk menciptakan sarana bagi kita untuk memutuskan apa yang terbaik sebagai sebuah komunitas dalam menjawab tantangan ekonomi, sosial, dan lingkungan yang kita hadapi. [ ]

 

* Dave Boyle adalah penulis pamflet Good News: A Co-operative Solution to the Media Crisis (Co-operatives UK, 2012) diterjemahkan ke Bahasa Indonesia oleh Bosman Batubara dengan judul Media Kooperasi & Kooperasi Media (GLI & INSIST Press, 2013).

 

 

Angga Palsewa Putra
Angga Palsewa Putra
Aktif di Gerakan Literasi Indonesia.

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