UU ITE Kembali Memakan Korban
Oct 2, 2015
Rebut Framing Salim Kancil
Oct 5, 2015

Cacat Hukum UU ITE Nomor 11 Tahun 2008

sumber: http://web.kominfo.go.id/sites/default/files/users/12/Menkominfo%20Janji%20Akan%20Revisi%20UU%20ITE.png

UNTUK memulai perdebatan tentang Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2008 tentang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik (UU ITE), terutama berkenaan dengan pencemaran nama baik sebagaimana tercantum dalam Pasal 27 ayat (3) UU ITE, penting bagi kita untuk memahami terlebih dahulu mengenai teori perundang-undangan dan upaya tafsir atas undang-undang. Dalam pidato pengukuhannya sebagai guru besar di Universitas Indonesia, A. Hamid S. Attamimi memberi penjelasan tentang teori perundang-undangan:

“‘Teori perundang-undangan’ bukanlah berarti pendapat cara melakukan sesuatu, seperti dikatakan orang: teorinya mudah tetapi praktiknya sukar. Bukan pula berarti pendapat yang dikemukakan sebagai keterangan mengenai suatu peristiwa (…). Kata ‘teori perundang-undangan’ yang dimaksudkan di sini ialah sekumpulan pemahaman-pemahaman, titik-titik tolak, dan asas-asas yang saling berkaitan, yang memungkinkan kita memahami lebih baik terhadap sesuatu yang kita coba untuk mendalaminya.”

Teori perundang-undangan merujuk pada ilmu pengetahuan di bidang perundang-undangan yang bersifat kognitif, dalam arti memberi pemahaman terutama mengenai pemahaman-pemahaman dasarnya. Dari penggunaan istilah atau pemahaman perundang-undangan, Attamimi cenderung menggunakan pemahaman perundang-undangan dari Burkhardt Krems, pakar hukum perundang-undangan asal Jerman. Pengetahuan perundang-undangan yang dimaksud dibagi menjadi dua sisi. Pertama, sisi yang berorientasi untuk menjelaskan dan menjernihkan pemahaman yang bersifat kognitif (teori perundang-undangan). Kedua, sisi yang melakukan perbuatan pelaksanaan dan bersifat normatif (ilmu perundang-undangan dalam arti sempit).

Dengan demikian, teori perundang-undangan ialah cabang atau sisi dari ilmu perundang-undangan yang bersifat kognitif dan berorientasi mengusahakan kejelasan dan kejernihan pemahaman, khususnya pemahaman di bidang perundang-undangan (pemahaman tentang undang-undang, tafsir atas undang-undang, pembentuk undang-undang, dan sebagainya).

Berangkat dari penjelasan tersebut, pemahaman terhadap fungsi perundang-undangan dan tafsir atas undang-undang harus disandarkan pada pemahaman kognitif dan pengetahuan hukum, sebagaimana diuraikan dengan jernih secara teoretis oleh Attamimi atas tafsirnya terhadap konsep Burkhardt Krems. Di Indonesia, dalam proses pembentukan perundang-undangan dan praktik perundang-undangan, sering terjadi pendangkalan pemahaman atas tafsir undang-undang, baik oleh pembentuk undang-undang maupun penegak hukum. Hal ini tampak jelas dalam kaitannya dengan pasal pencemaran nama baik dalam UU ITE.

Secara umum, UU ITE dibagi menjadi dua bagian besar. Pertama, pengaturan mengenai informasi dan transaksi elektronik. Kedua, pengaturan mengenai perbuatan yang dilarang.

UU ITE dibentuk untuk mengakomodasi kebutuhan para pelaku bisnis di internet dan masyarakat umum guna mendapatkan kepastian hukum dalam melakukan transaksi elektronik. Beberapa materi yang diatur, antara lain: pengakuan informasi/dokumen elektronik sebagai alat bukti hukum yang sah (Pasal 5 dan Pasal 6), tanda tangan elektronik (Pasal 11 dan Pasal 12), penyelenggaraan sertifikasi elektronik (certification authority) (Pasal 13 dan Pasal 14), dan penyelenggaraan sistem elektronik (Pasal 15 dan Pasal 16).

Beberapa materi perbuatan yang dilarang (cybercrimes) yang diatur dalam UU ITE, antara lain: konten ilegal, yang terdiri dari, antara lain, kesusilaan, perjudian, penghinaan dan/atau pencemaran nama baik, pengancaman, dan pemerasan (Pasal 27, Pasal 28, dan Pasal 29); akses ilegal (Pasal 30); intersepsi ilegal (Pasal 31); gangguan terhadap data (data interference) (Pasal 32); gangguan terhadap sistem (system interference) (Pasal 33); dan penyalahgunaan alat dan perangkat (misuse of device) (Pasal 34).

Berangkat dari tinjauan umum di atas, menurut saya, ada beberapa persoalan dalam UU ITE. Pertama, dalam konsiderans UU ITE tidak terdapat rujukan yuridis secara materiil terhadap Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 (UUD 1945). Dengan demikian, UU ITE juga tidak sesuai dengan Pasal 1 ayat (13) UU Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 tentang Pembentukan Perundang-undangan. Pasal tersebut menyatakan bahwa:

“Materi Muatan Peraturan Perundang-undangan adalah materi yang dimuat dalam Peraturan Perundang-undangan sesuai dengan jenis, fungsi, dan hierarki Peraturan Perundang-undangan.”

Tambahan lagi, Pasal 5 poin c UU Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 tentang Pembentukan Perundang-undangan juga menyebutkan:

“Dalam membentuk Peraturan Perundang-undangan harus dilakukan berdasarkan pada asas Pembentukan Peraturan Perundang-undangan yang baik, yang meliputi: (…) c. kesesuaian antara jenis, hierarki, dan materi muatan; (…)”

Dari Pasal ayat (13) dan Pasal 5 poin c UU Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 tentang Pembentukan Perundang-undangan tersebut, jelas bahwa pembentukan suatu peraturan perundang-undangan, baik secara materiil maupun formil, harus merujuk pada hierarki peraturan perundang-perundangan. Penjelasan umum UU ITE sebenarnya merupakan intisari dari dua konsep instrumen internasional yang sudah ada, yakni UNCITRAL Model Law on eCommerce dan UNCITRAL Model Law on eSignature. Kedua konvensi tersebut dihasilkan oleh Komisi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa tentang Hukum Perdagangan Internasional (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law atau UNCTRAL). Tetapi, kedua konvensi internasional tersebut belum disahkan di Indonesia, sehingga pengesahan instrumen internasional, setidaknya berupa kedua konvensi tersebut, tidak dimuat dalam rujukan materiil rumusan konsiderans UU ITE. Hal ini menyebabkan UU ITE tidak sesuai dengan Pasal 10 ayat (1) huruf c UU Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 tentang Pembentukan Perundang-undangan yang berbunyi:

“Materi muatan yang harus diatur dengan Undang-Undang berisi: (…) c. pengesahan perjanjian internasional tertentu; (…).”

Kedua, UU ITE secara yuridis hanya merujuk pada Pasal 5 ayat (1) dan Pasal 20 UUD 1945 tentang kewenangan pembentuk undang-undang. Artinya, UU ITE hanya menyebutkan rujukan formil tanpa menyertakan landasan yuridis terhadap muatan materinya.

Ketiga, pasal yang mengatur tentang pencemaran nama baik, yakni Pasal 27 ayat (3), tidak menjelaskan secara rinci tentang apa yang disebut “pencemaran nama baik”. Tidak ada pasal maupun penjelasan dalam UU ITE yang dapat menguraikan secara jelas delik pencemaran nama baik yang dimaksud; bagaimana pengertian, penggolongan, maupun unsur-unsurnya secara tegas sehingga dalam praktik perundang-undangan seringkali terjadi tafsir sepihak oleh penegak hukum (penyidik kepolisian). Pasal 27 ayat (3) tertuang dalam Bab VII yang mengatur tentang “Perbuatan yang Dilarang”. Pasal tersebut berbunyi:

“Setiap Orang dengan sengaja dan tanpa hak mendistribusikan dan/atau mentransmisikan dan/atau membuat dapat diaksesnya Informasi Elektronik dan/atau Dokumen Elektronik yang memiliki muatan penghinaan dan/atau pencemaran nama baik.”

Dari keseluruhan batang tubuh UU ITE, semangat undang-undang ini sebenarnya adalah mengatur lalu lintas hubungan bisnis di media elektronik yang bersandar pada hak kekayaan intelektual (perdata). Dengan demikian, tafsir atas Pasal 27 ayat (3) UU ITE seharusnya sesuai dengan semangat dan asas pembentukannya, sebagaimana tertuang dalam Pasal 3 dan Pasal 4 huruf a, c, dan e UU ITE (baca lebih lanjut penjelasan kententuan umum dalam penjelasan UU ITE). Lewat metode tafsir sejarah atas lahirnya UU ITE pun, yakni dengan melihat risalah perdebatan mengenai pasal pencemaran nama baik sehingga menjadi pasal yang sah dalam UU ITE (original intent), pasal pencemaran nama baik itu hanya dapat ditafsirkan pada hal ihwal yang bersentuhan dengan hubungan bisnis dalam transaksi elektronik.

Pasal 3 UU ITE berbunyi:

“Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik dilaksanakan berdasarkan asas kepastian hukum, manfaat, kehati-hatian, iktikad baik, dan kebebasan memilih teknologi atau netral teknologi.”

Pasal 4 poin a, c, dan e UU ITE berbunyi:

“Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik dilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk: a. mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa sebagai bagian dari masyarakat informasi dunia; (…) c. meningkatkan efektivitas dan efisiensi pelayanan publik; (…) e. memberikan rasa aman, keadilan, dan kepastian hukum bagi pengguna dan penyelenggara Teknologi Informasi.”

Dalam tulisan ini, penulis ingin menunjukkan kepada penyidik kepolisian mengenai cara untuk menafsirkan pasal pencemaran nama baik dalam UU ITE, yakni Pasal 27 ayat (3). Setidaknya ada tiga hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam menafsirkan pasal tersebut. Pertama, menganalisis penjelasan umum UU ITE dengan merujuk pada UUD 1945 yang berkaitan dengan kemerdekaan berserikat dan berpendapat. Kedua, dengan melihat semangat, latar belakang, orginal intent, dan asas pembentukannya, Pasal 27 ayat (3) UU ITE harus sesuai dengan ketentuan Pasal 5 UU Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 tentang Pembentukan Perundang-undangan, serta asas dan tujuan pembentukan UU ITE sebagaimana tercantum dalam Pasal 3 dan Pasal 4 Poin a, c, dan e UU ITE. Ketiga, pasal pencemaran nama baik ini secara langsung atau tidak langsung menabrak Pasal 27 ayat (1), Pasal 28 ayat (1), Pasal 28C ayat (1), Pasal 28D ayat (1), dan Pasal 30 ayat (4) UUD 1945. Dengan menimbang seluruh pasal tersebut, pasal pencemaran nama baik dalam UU ITE ini inkonstitusional karena melanggar ketentuan pasal-pasal dalam UUD 1945 dan UU Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 tentang Pembentukan Perundang-undangan.

UU ITE seharusnya bisa memberikan manfaat nyata bagi subjek hukum, bukannya melakukan penindasan dan pembungkaman terhadap kritik dari berbagai elemen masyarakat yang membawa seruan kebenaran dan keadilan. Aparat penegak hukum (kepolisian, kejaksaan, dan kehakiman) sudah semestinya diingatkan bahwa UU ITE harus menjadi instrumen penegakan hukum (law enforcement), panduan hukum informasi (lex informatica), dan hukum media (media law) yang berpihak pada kebenaran dan keadilan. Kasus Saut Situmorang, Adlun Fikri, dan Suparman Marzuki adalah tiga dari banyak kasus penindasan dan pembungkaman kritik masyarakat terhadap kebobrokan negeri ini. Mereka dikriminalisasi dengan pasal karet dalam UU ITE yang, kalau dibedah lebih jauh, justru bertentangan dengan UUD 1945 dan UU Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 tentang Pembentukan Perundang-undangan.

Berkenaan dengan jatuhnya korban-korban dari penyalahgunaan UU ITE, para pemerhati hukum memiliki kewajiban moral dan intelektual untuk membela korban-korban yang lahir dari penerapan UU ITE. Kewajiban itu bisa berupa pendampingan hukum, pengajuan analisis hukum terkait dengan pasal-pasal dalam UU ITE, dan turut serta dalam pengorganisasian kekuatan masyarakat sipil, agar proses hukum yang timpang bisa lekas dihentikan. []

Maulana Patra Syah
Maulana Patra Syah
Mahasiswa Magister Hukum UGM dan Anggota GLI

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