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Jul 11, 2015
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Jul 14, 2015

Bendungan Raksasa dan Ilusi Kemajuan

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Pengalaman menunjukkan, semua proyek pembangunan waduk raksasa meninggalkan orang-orang yang tergusur dandihancurkan kehidupannya. Akankah pembangunan Waduk Jatigede akan mengulang terjadinya perampasan ruang hidup rakyat?

 

Oleh Rusman Nurjaman

(Catatan dari Kasus Jatigede, Sumedang)

Setelah 46 tahun tertunda, pembangunan Waduk Jatigede di Kabupaten Sumedang, Jawa Barat, itu kini hampir usai. Pemerintah merencanakan waduk ini akan mulai diairi medio Agustus 2015. Jika sesuai rencana, waduk akan beroperasi 3 bulan kemudian.

Dalam prosesnya, pembangunan Waduk Jatigede melibatkan modal asing. Sebagian besar pembiayaan (90 %) berasal dari Pemerintah Tiongkok. Sisanya, berasal dari dana APBN. Sedangkan dalam pengerjaan proyek pembangunan waduk yang menghabiskan biaya hingga mencapai hampir US$ 500 juta ini, Sinohydro dan empat perusahaan kontaktor yang tergabung dalam Consortium Indonesian Contractors—yaitu antara lain Wijaya Karya, Waskita Karya, Hutama Karya, dan Pembangunan Perumahan—ditunjuk sebagai kontraktornya.

Dengan dalih demi menopang cita-cita ketahanan pangan, Waduk Jatigede merupakan salah satu dari 49 waduk yang direncanakan bakal dibangun hingga 5 tahun ke depan. Namun, pemerintah sendiri menargetkan pembangunan waduk selesai tahun ini. Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (RPJMN) 2015-2019 juga memprioritaskan pembangunan waduk yang dibanguan di atas lahan seluas 4.891 ha tsb.

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Menolak Uji Publik

Pembangunan Waduk Jatigede mulai digagas pada masa-masa awal pemerintahan Orde Baru di penghujung dekade 1960-an. Tapi pembebasan lahan baru dilakukan pada 1982. Namun, selama ini pembangunannya terkendala karena menimbulkan permasalahan yang cukup kompleks. Menurut catatan LBH Bandung, yang aktif mendampingi warga tergusur, permasalahan muncul antara lain karena warga dirugikan. Tidak ada proses tawar-menawar terkait pengadaan lahan untuk bendungan. Program transmigrasi yang sempat diwacanakan pun gagal dijalankan.

Menjelang tahun 2000-an, penolakan warga kian meluas. Kali ini tidak hanya dipicu oleh proses pembebasan lahan yang tidak fair, melainkan juga karena pembangunan waduk akan menenggelamkan lahan-lahan produktif pertanian sawah—yang selama ini menjadi mata pencaharian warga—dan cagar-cagar budaya yang terdapat di sana.

Program MP3EI-lah yang kemudian membangkitkan kembali proyek pembangunan waduk yang semula gagal dan sempat dihentikan ini. Program akselerasi pembangunan yang digagas Bappenas dan Menko Perekonomian di era Pemerintahan SBY-Boediono ini membuka jalan yang efektif untuk mempercepat proyek. Sebabnya tak lain karena MP3EI melalui mekanisme yang disebut de-bottlenecking dapat memotong kompas semua peraturan daerah. Pemerintah daerah tak bisa berbuat apa-apa karena pembangunan waduk mengatasnamakan “kepentingan nasional”.

Sayangnya, proses pembangunan waduk dilakukan tanpa melalui tahapan-tahapan yang transparan, akuntabel, dan partisipatif, lantaran menolak untuk dilakukan uji (konsultasi) publik terhadap pembangunan waduk. Padahal, pembangunan waduk akan menggenangi 28 desa yang tersebar di 4 kecamatan dengan jumlah populasi mencapai 11.000 keluarga. Dari jumlah itu, terdapat 6 desa yang bakal ditenggelamkan, yaitu Leuwihideung, Cipaku, Jatibungur, Cibogo, Sukakersa, dan Padajaya. Keenam desa ini umumnya memiliki lahan produktif dengan luas area persawahan yang terhampar di mana-mana.

Warga menolak direlokasi karena dua alasan: 1) besaran ganti rugi yang tidak fair; dan 2) lahan yang akan mereka tempati kelak tidak layak ditinggali; sementara daerah yang mereka tinggali selama ini merupakan lahan produktif yang menghasilkan produk-produk pertanian (padi) yang bermutu. Dengan demikian, adanya pembangunan Waduk Jatigede akan memicu perubahan kultur dari agraris ke industri. Namun, mengingat daya serap sektor jasa dan industri sangat terbatas, kemungkinan warga akan beralih menjadi pelaku sektor informal atau menjadi TKI. Dua pilihan yang berisiko besar, bahkan rentan untuk terjerembab ke dalam praktik human trafickking.

Kenyataan di lapangan, gejolak masih berlangsung terkait pemberian kompensasi ganti rugi dan uang kerahiman yang belum tuntas. Menyadari situasi ini, mengawali tahun 2015, Presiden Joko Widodo langsung menandatangani Perpres No. 1 Tahun 2015 tentang Penanganan Dampak Sosial Kemasyarakatan Pembangunan Waduk Jatigede pada 2 Januari silam. Dengan terbitnya Perpres ini, setiap KK yang tanah dan tempat tinggalnya terdampak pembangunan waduk dijanjikan mendapat kompensasi Rp 119 juta dan uang santunan sebesar Rp 29 juta untuk setiap kepala keluarga (KK).

Hanya saja, terbitnya Perpres No. 1 Tahun 2015 masih menyisakan persoalan. Pasalnya, Perpres ini tidak mengatur secara rinci penyelesaian dampak sosial ketika pembebasan lahan dilakukan antara 1982-1986. Padahal, warga menilai masalah ini krusial karena pembebasan lahan pada saat itu dalam prosesnya terjadi salah ukur, salah bayar, salah klasifikasi tanah, serta terdapat tanah warga yang terlewat pembebasan lahan.

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Keberlanjutan Ekologis Waduk di Ujung Tanduk

Sementara dari sisi lingkungan, berdasarkan investigasi Walhi Jawa Barat, pembangunan waduk juga akan menenggelamkan lahan hutan lindung (milik Perhutani). Dari sisi geologis, waduk ini berdiri di atas pata
han yang manakala digenangi air di atasnya sangat berisiko mendatangkan bencana. Dadan Ramdan, Ketua Walhi Jabar, mengatakan, ke depannya pembangunan waduk di daerah aliran sungai Cimanuk yang kondisinya sangat kritis ini akan berpengaruh pada pasokan air. Tak hanya itu, menurut catatan Walhi Jawa Barat, dengan adanya pembangunan Waduk Jatigede sedikitnya 1.389 hektare hutan produktif yang menopang tatanan ekologis sekitar waduk pun terancam rusak. Dengan menimbang berbagai faktor tersebut, dari segi keberlanjutan ekologis, sesungguhnya tidak memungkinkan pembangunan waduk di atas kondisi lahan demikian, terlebih ketika musim kemarau (debit air sangat kurang).

Bagaimanapun, pemerintah masih optimis bahwa proses pemberian kompensasi ini akan berjalan lancar hingga mendekati saat waduk mulai digenangi. Pun tak pernah menyurutkan optimisme pemerintah pada manfaat waduk yang dibangun dengan biaya Rp 2,57 triliun ini di masa mendatang. Setidaknya terdapat 3 (tiga) kontribusi besar waduk yang selama ini selalu didengung-dengungkan pemerintah dan para pendukungnya: mendongkrak produksi ketenagalistrikan (hingga 110 megawatt), menambah pasokan air minum, dan saluran irigasi yang dapat mengairi 100.000 ha sawah.

Kendati akan digenangi dalam waktu dekat, hingga akhir Mei ini belum ada relokasi penduduk sama sekali dari keenam desa tersebut. Padahal mereka terancam kehilangan tempat tinggal dan mata pencahariannya dalam jangka panjang. Tak ayal, jika mereka menuntut konsep relokasi yang lebih menjamin kehidupan mereka dan pengembangan ekonomi. Sebuah tuntutan yang masuk akal karena sebagian besar warga desa adalah para petani yang belum tentu dapat memperoleh matapencaharian lagi di tempat baru kelak.

Ironisnya, Perpres No. 1 Tahun 2015 tentang Pengendalian Dampak Sosial Kemasyarakatan Pembangunan Waduk Jatigede tidak mengatur sama sekali konsep relokasi dan pengembangan ekonomi bagi warga yang tergusur. Pada titik ini, apakah optimisme pemerintah terkait pembangunan Waduk Jatigede cukup beralasan? Apakah pembangunan waduk Jatigede dan waduk-waduk raksasa lainnya yang akan dibangun pemerintah cukup mempunyai legitimasi moral yang memadai? Dengan kata lain, apakah pembangunan waduk di Indonesia masih relevan?

Mengulang Kegagalan “Proyek Pemukiman Kembali” Bank Dunia?

Waduk Jatigede hanya salah satu dari 49 waduk yang ditargetkan bakal dibangun pemerintah Jokowi-JK selama 5 tahun ke depan. Di tengah surutnya pembangunan waduk-waduk besar di seluruh dunia, kecenderungan merebaknya kembali pembangunan waduk di negeri ini tergolong aneh. Hal ini mengulang kembali pengalaman pembangunan waduk di negara-negara berkembang yang dulu disokong oleh Bank Dunia, kendati model seperti ini sudah banyak dikritik dan dinyatakan bankrut.

Proyek pemukiman kembali rancangan Bank Dunia bagi warga yang tergusur pembangunan waduk telah dinyatakan gagal. Sebabnya antara lain banyak di antara warga yang tergusur kembali ke tempat asalnya karena tempat relokasi yang mereka tempati jauh dari memadai. Setelah sempat memuncak pada dekade 1970-80-an, memasuki dekade 1990-an tren pembangunan waduk di negara-negara dunia ketiga pun mulai surut.

Dalam hal ini, sebagaimana penuturan Vandana Shiva dalam Water Wars: Privatization, Pollution, and Profit (2002), kasus di India memberikan pelajaran berharga bagi negara-negara dunia ketiga yang akan membangun waduk. Selain kontroversi megawaduk Sardar Sarovar yang dibangun di Sungai Narmada yang menyulut gerakan protes massal, proyek pembangunan waduk Kabini di Karnataka juga adalah ilustrasi paling baik tentang bagaimana proyek kontruksi air dapat dengan sendirinya mengganggu siklus hidrologis dan merusak sumber daya air di lembah sungai. Manakala bendungan menggenangi 6.000 hektar tanah, perelokasian penduduk membutuhkan pembabatan 30.000 hektar hutan alam. Curah hujan lokal turun dari 60 inci menjadi 45 inci, dan tingginya penimbunan lumpur secara drastis mengurangi ketahanan bendungan. Dalam dua tahun, pengurasan air dan tingginya kadar garam menghancurkan sebagian besar perkebunan kelapa dan persawahan di sekitarnya.

Demikianlah, protes yang semula hanya merupakan perjuangan untuk mendapatkan pemukiman yang layak bagi warga yang tergusur, seketika berubah menjadi kontroversi besar dalam persoalan lingkungan. Kontroversi itu tidak hanya mempertanyakan metode kompensasi bagi penduduk yang tergusur, tetapi juga pada logika yang melandasi pembangunan waduk raksasa secara keseluruhan. Untuk tujuan apa dan untuk siapakah waduk-waduk raksasa itu dibangun?

Ancaman Pelanggaran HAM di Depan Mata

Investigasi ilmuwan Vandhana Shiva dan uraian panjang Arundhati Roy dalam “The Greater Common Good” terhadap proses dan dampak pembangunan waduk raksasa di India, serta pengalaman pembangunan waduk-waduk raksasa di negeri ini dan di belahan dunia lain, selalu bermuara pada satu kenyataan yang sama: semua proyek pembangunan waduk selalu meninggalkan orang-orang yang tergusur dan dihancurkan kehidupannya.

Dalam kasus Jatigede, potensi ancaman pelanggaran HAM jelas kian di depan mata. Puluhan ribu masyarakat terancam tercerabut dari tanahnya (pelanggaran hak atas tanah). Mereka juga terancam kehilangan tempat tinggal (pelanggaran hak atas papan/tempat tinggal yang layak), dan ancaman kehilangan mata pencaharian (pelanggaran hak atas pekerjaan).

Pembangunan infrastruktur semestinya dapat menopang upaya pemenuhan hak-hak ekonomi, sosial, dan budaya. Ironisnya, dalam kasus pembangunan Waduk Jatigede yang terjadi justru sebaliknya: merampas hak-hak rakyat. Masalahnya, bagaimana agar pembangunan infrastruktur seperti bendungan raksasa ini tidak merampas hak-hak rakyat? Pada titik inilah dibutuhkan pendekatan hak asasi manusia dalam pembangunan (rights based approach to development), tak terkecuali dalam pembangunan bendungan raksasa macam Waduk Jatigede. Konkretnya, agar tidak menjadi bagian dari pelanggaran hak asasi manusia (pemaksaan, intimidasi, dan kriminalisasi), maka harus ada kontrol. Singkatnya, jika tujuan negara ini untuk kemakmuran rakyat, maka pembangunan infrastruktur jangan sampai memiskinkan tetapi harus mensejahterakan masyarakat.

Jika bertumpu pada pembangunan berbasis hak asasi manusia, karena tidak semua lahan dimiliki oleh negara, maka harus dirancang cara-cara kompensasi atau pengambil alihan lahan yang berorientasi pada hak asasi manusia. Sebagai contoh, dalam pengadaan lahan harus dirancang cara-cara yang tidak membuat orang kehilangan mata pencaharian. Untuk masyarakat yang lahannya diambil, kompensasinya seharusnya tidak hanya dalam bentuk uang, tetapi juga misalnya mereka menjadi pemegang saham dari pembangunan infrastruktur tersebut. Misalnya, kalau yang dibangun adalah bandara atau bendungan raksasa, maka masyarakat yang lahannya diambil harus menjadi bagian dari pemegang saham bandara atau bendungan tersebut.

Dengan kata lain, pengadaan lahan untuk pembangunan infrastruktur tidak boleh meniru seperti yang dilakukan pada zaman Orde Baru. Dengan mengatasnamakan untuk kepentingan orang banyak, negara seringkali memaksa orang yang punya tanah untuk mengalah. Model seperti inilah justru bakal memiskinkan orang yang lahannya diambil. Ke depannya, hal ini akan jadi beban sosial negara lagi. Akankah pembangunan Waduk Jatigede hanya akan mengulang pengalaman pahit ini?[]

(Versi awal tulisan ini pernah dimuat di Buletin Analisis Dokumentasi HAM “ASASI”, Elsam, Maret 2015)

Foto-foto: Nuran Wibisono (The Geo TIMES)

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