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Mar 24, 2015

Benarkah Batu di Rembang “tidak memiliki sumber air”?

Gambar 1: Sayatan melintang Gunung Watu Putih dan sekitarnya. Sumber: Dokumen Andal PT SI; tanda panah merah pada sayatan bagian atas dari penulis.

Oleh Bosman Batubara (Mahasiswa doktoral UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, Delft); dan Koordinator Biro Riset Front Nahdliyin untuk Kedaulatan Sumber Daya Alam (FNKSDA).

Persidangan terhadap kasus Izin Lingkungan PT Semen Indonesia (SI) Tbk. di Rembang berujung pada digeruduknya kampus Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) oleh massa petani Rembang. UGM menjadi sasasaran karena dua orang akademianya, Eko Haryono (EH), dosen Fakultas Geografi, dan Heru Hendrayana (HH), dosen Teknik Geologi tampil sebagai saksi ahli pihak PT SI dalam persidangan.

Dalam Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia 27/2012 disebutkan bahwa Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (Amdal) terdiri atas: a)Kerangka Acuan; b)Analisis Dampak Lingkungan Hidup/Andal; dan c)Rencana Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup-Rencana Pemantauan Lingkungan Hidup/RKL-RPL. Istilah-istilah ini perlu dijelaskan di awal agar tidak membingungkan.

Pemberitaan di Tribunnews (19 Maret 2015) memuat kesaksian HH sebagai berikut:

‘Heru mengatakan PT Semen Indonesia Tbk melakukan penambangan batu gamping (kapur) sebagai bahan baku semen. Batu seperti ini berada di wilayah yang tidak memiliki sumber air…”Jadi tidak ada masalah dalam pembangunan pabrik semen di Rembang,” ‘

Tulisan ini menilik argumentasi HH dari dua titik tolak. Pertama, bahwa nada pasti yang ditunjukkan oleh pernyataan tersebut tidak lazim dalam dunia ilmu geologi/hidrologi yang penuh dengan interpetasi (dan ketakpastian). Kedua, dengan menghadirkan data dan interpretasitandingan, tulisan ini menunjukkan bahwa keterangan saksi ahli PT SI salah.

Pertama, soal interpretasi. Pemodelan dalam peta geologi dan juga peta hidrogeologi (air tanah) pada dasarnya adalah usaha untuk menampilkan apa yang ada di alam, dalam sudut pandang skala, menjadi sesuatu yang lebih kecil dan dengan itu menjadi lebih mobile dan harapannya, kompleksitas alam bisa dipahami dari model. Namun penting dicatat di sini, peta ataupun model, bukanlah alam itu sendiri. Peta atau model adalah satu realitas. Sementara alam yang nyata adalah realitas yang lain.

Dalam Andal PT SI di Rembang data yang digunakan adalah data pemboran dan data geolistrik. Pemboran dilakukan untuk mengetahui kondisi bawah permukaan baik melalui data geological (rock core) maupun geophysical log. Sementara survei geolistrik dilakukan untuk mengetahui tahanan jenis lapisan batuan di bawah permukaan. Metode yang lain yang lebih sederhana yang bisa dipakai misalnya, pemetaan geologi dengan melakukan pengamatan singkapan dan pengukuran kedudukan perlapisan batuan.

Ketiga metode di atas menghadirkan interpretasi. Dalam BAB III Andal PT SI disebutkan bahwa ada data pemboran. Saya berusaha mencari-cari berapa titik bor yang digunakan, namun sependek yang dapat saya temukan tidak disebutkan secara jelas jumlah titik bor yang digunakan. Jadi, kemungkinan besar titik bor yang digunakan adalah 5. Keterangan tentang diameter bor juga tidak saya temukan dalam dokumen Andal, namun saya perkirakan tidak lebih dari 10 cm. Dengan demikian, bisa dibayangkan lokasi penambangan seluas 520 hektar [PT. Semen Gresik (Persero) Tbk. 2012] dicoba diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan 5 titik bor. Poin saya, sekalipun digunakan 10 atau 50 titik bor, itu tetaplah tidak merepresentasikan secara persis seluruh area.

Hal yang sama terjadi dengan survei geolistrik. Model yang disajikan dalam dokumen Andal PT SI jelas memperlihatkan unsur interpretasi ini. Hal ini misalnya ditampilkan dalam bentuk “garis putus-putus” sebagai tanda ketidakpastian, atau tingkat keyakinan si penginterpretasi yang relatif lemah terhadap apa yang ia interpretasi, bandingkan misalnya andai sebuah tanda dalam peta geologi ditampilkan dengan garis tegas. Dalam metode pemetaan geologi melalui pengamatan singkapan dan pengukuran kedudukan perlapisan batuan, hal yang sama juga berlaku. Dari beberapa titik yang dilakukan pengumpulan data, para geolog biasanya akan menyusun peta geologi. Lebih jauh, semua sumber data seperti data pemboran, data geolistrik, dan data pemetaan geologi melalui pengamatan singkapan dan pengukuran kedudukan perlapisan batuan, kemudian dikombinasikan untuk membentuk model geologi yang kemudian ditampilkan dalam bentuk peta2 dimensi maupun bagan 3 dimensi.

Persis di titik inilah tulisan ini melihat sumber-sumber ketakpastian dalam kerja geolog: dari transformasi data 1 dimensi (data pengeboran serta data pengamatan singkapan dan pengkuran kedudukan perlapisan batuan) ke 2 dimensi (peta); dan karena logika ekstrapolasi yang sama kembali dipakai, ketakpastian yang sama muncul dalam proses transformasi 2 dimensi (peta) menjadi bagan 3 dimensi yang bersifat volumetrik.

Tidak seperti HH yang kalau mengacu kutipan di atas memberikan pernyataan bernada pasti, dokumen Andal PT SI sendiri sangat menyadari sifat interpretatif yang dikandungnya. Hal ini terlihat dari penggunaan kata “diperkirakan” pada sub-bab “Kuantitas Air” yang muncul berulang dalam dokumen tersebut, seperti yang disajikan dalam kutipan berikut:

Kegiatan PT Semen Gresik terhadap kondisi hidrologi dan hidrogeologi diperkirakan terutama akan berdampak pada mataair yang berada di tenggara areal IUP PT Semen Gresik. Dampak ini dapat diperkirakan dengan keberadaan jaringan lembah permukaan di aeral IUP yang bermuara ke arah Tenggara. [PT. Semen Gresik (Persero) Tbk. 2012, halaman 48 Bab V];garis bawah dari penulis (Bosman).

Atau seperti:

Mataair Brubulan diperkirakan akan terkena dampak dari kegiatan penambangan PT Semen Gresik karena sistem lorong (conduit) dari Mataair Brubulan mempunyai jaringan hingga ke areal IUP PT Semen Gresik. [PT. Semen Gresik (Persero) Tbk. 2012, halaman 49 Bab V]; garis bawah dari penulis.

Dari penggunaan kata “diperkirakan” dalam kutipan yang ditampilkan di atas, terlihat jelas dimensi interpretasi dalam dokumen Andal PT SI. Dan memang demikianlah biasanya cara berargumentasi dalam disiplin ilmu geologi. Dus, perdebatan bukanlah hal asing. Khalayak mungkin masih segar ingatannya soal perdebatan para geolog soal penyebab Lumpur Lapindo. Tulisan ini tidak akan masuk ke kasus Lapindo lebih jauh, kalau tertarik, direkomendasikan untuk membaca Batubara dan Waluyo (2012).

Kedua, data pembanding untuk memperlihatkan kesalahan argumentasi HH. Pada argumennya yang dikutip di atas, HH menyatakan bahwa “Batu seperti ini berada di wilayah yang tidak memiliki sumber air.” Kemungkinan besar apa yang dimaksud oleh HH sebagai “sumber air” dalam kesaksiannya adalah air yang muncul dari dalam tanah, bisa jadi berbentuk mata air. Argumen ini bersandar pada fakta bahwa HH seorang hidrogeolog.

Setentang ini, dimulai dari fakta pertama. Pertanyaan sederhana, apakah yang dimaksud “sumber air” cuma air yang keluar dari dalam tanah? Bagaimana dengan aliran air permukaan yang muncul pada saat terjadinya hujan dan ditampung manusia sebagai bentuk cadangan air, ataupun digunakan tumbuhan dan binatang untuk melanjutkan kehidupannya? Kalau aliran air permukaan yang tergantung musim ini juga bisa disebut sebagai “sumber air” maka dengan telak kita bisa melihat masalah dalam argumentasi HH. Karena, berdasarkan peta yang disajikan oleh PT SI dalam dokumen Andal, terlihat jelas bahwa lokasi Izin Usaha Pertambangan (IUP) PT SI dipenuhi dengan garis-garis putus-putus yang merepresentasikan kontur permukaan yang berbentuk lembah. Lembah-lembah seperti ini, kalau definisi “sumber air” juga mencakup aliran permukaan, pada musim tertentu berfungsi sebagai sumber air.

Fakta kedua, argumentasi HH yang menyatakan bahwa batu yang akan ditambang tidak memiliki sumber air, harus ditelaah secara seksama. Dalam dokumen gugatan warga dan Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia (WALHI) yang sekarang dalam masa persidangan di Pengadilan Negeri (PN) Semarang, disebutkan ada 3 ponor (lubang masuknya air ke dalam tanah pada ekosistem karst), (Tim Advokasi Peduli Lingkungan2014, hlm. 29-30)di dalam area IUP PT SI. Apa artinya?

Artinya HH secara paradigmatik memisahkan “sumber air,” yang kemungkinan dalam pengertian HH adalah mata air yang keluar dari tanah, dengan ponor sebagai “lubang masuknya air ke dalam tanah pada ekosistem karst.” Kalau berpikir sistemik, maka argumentasi HH bisa dites sebagai berikut. Apakah ponor sebagai “lubang masuknya air ke dalam tanah pada ekosistem karst” adalah bagian yang terpisah dari “mata air yang keluar dari tanah,” ataukah keduanya ada dalam satu sistem yang saling berhubungan? Penulis percaya yang kedua. Alasannya sederhana, “air masuk” dan “air keluar” adalah bagian yang berbeda dari satu ekosistem karst yang sama, dan dengan demikian tak terpisahkan. Dengan tidak munculnya keberadaan ponorserta cara pandang inheren yang memisahkan “air masuk” dengan “air keluar,” dapat disebut bahwa HH telah terpenjara pada sudut pandang yang tidak sistemik dalam melihat ekosistem karst.

Fakta ketiga, peta sayatan melintang di sekitar Gunung Watu Putih dan hubungannya dengan mata air di sekitarnya seperti yang disajikan dalam gambar 1 berikut.

Gambar 1: Sayatan melintang Gunung Watu Putih dan sekitarnya. Sumber: Dokumen Andal PT SI; tanda panah merah pada sayatan bagian atas dari penulis.

Gambar 1: Sayatan melintang Gunung Watu Putih dan sekitarnya. Sumber: Dokumen Andal PT SI; tanda panah merah pada sayatan bagian atas dari penulis.

Mengingat dimensi “interpretasi dalam ilmu hidrologi” seperti yang disampaikan pada bagian sebelumnya, maka aliran air tanah juga bisa diinterpretasikan bergerak seperti tanda panah merah dalam Gambar 1. Dengan demikian, ini bisa membantah bahwa kecil pengaruh penambangan di sekitar Gunung Watu Putih terhadap mata air Sumber Semen seperti argumentasi yang dicoba dibangun oleh Andal PT SI. Argumentasi PT SI sehubungan dengan mata air Sumber Semen ini bukan tanpa alasan. Sumber Semen adalah sumber air buat Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum (PDAM) Rembang dengan debit 80 liter/detik dan untuk irigasi dengan debit 477 liter/detik (Hidayat 2013, hlm. 95).

Fakta keempat, argumentasi HH akan semakin hambar kalau dihadapkan dengan pengakuan warga Rembang berdasarkan pengamatan lapangan. Dalam keterangannya kepada Kompas (16 Agustus 2014), Djumadi menyatakan bahwa Amdal PT SI tak sesuai fakta. Ketidaksesuaian ini misalnya terlihat dari Amdal yang menyebutkan bahwa di kawasan ini hanya ada 9 goa, padahal dirinya menemukan 49 goa, dengan 4 diantaranya memiliki sungai bawah tanah. Ketaksesuaian kedua terletak pada keterangan dalam Amdal yang menyebutkan Goa Megah berkedalaman 115 m dan merupakan goa kering. Padahal menurut Djumadi kedalamannya hanya 20 m dan memiliki sungai bawah tanah.

Dengan demikian, berdasarkan dua argumentasi kunci yang disampaikan (nada yang terlalu pasti pada keterangan saksi ahli PT SI serta data dan interpretasi tandingan yang menunjukkan kesalahannya), maka tulisan ini tak memiliki cara lain untuk mengakhiri dirinya selain memberikan rekomendasi kepada PTUN Semarang untuk memenangkan gugatan warga dan WALHI. Meskipun sebenarnya, seperti yang sudah pernah penulis sampaikan dalam kesempatan sebelumnya (Batubara 2014), seharusnya tidak perlu ada PTUN karena Gubernur Jawa Tengah harus mencabut Izin Lingkungan PT SI demi hukum itu sendiri.

Acuan

Batubara, Bosman, dan Paring Waluyo Utomo. (2012). Kronik Lumpur Lapindo: Skandal Bencana Industri Migas di Sidoarjo. Yogyakarta: INSIST Press.

Batubara, Bosman. (2014). Izin Lingkungan PT Semen Indonesia di Rembang Harus Dibatalkan Demi Hukum. 7 Desember. Diakses di: http://www.daulathijau.org/?p=414; pada 22 Maret 2015.

Hidayat, Guswakhid. (2013). Kajian Optimalisasi dan Strategi Sumber Daya Air di Kabupaten Rembang, Jawa Tengah (Tesis). Semarang: Program Magister Ilmu Lingkungan Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

Kompas. (2014). PBNU: Hentikan Pabrik Semen Rembang. Koran KOMPAS Halaman 13, Sabtu 16 Agustus 2014.

PT. Semen Gresik (Persero) Tbk. (2012). Analisis Dampak Lingkungan Hidup (ANDAL).

Tim Advokasi Peduli Lingkungan. (2014). Dokumen Gugatan Terhadap Surat Keputusan Gubernur Jawa Tengah Nomor 668.1/17 tahun 2012 tentang Izin Lingkungan Kegiatan Penambangan Oleh PT. Semen Gresik (Persero) Tbk, di Kabupaten Rembang, Provinsi Jawa Tengah.

Tribunnews, 2015. Pakar Hidrologi UGM Sebut Batu Gamping di Rembang Tidak Mengandung Air. 19 Maret. Diakses di: http://jateng.tribunnews.com/2015/03/19/pakar-hidrologi-ugm-sebut-batu-gamping-di-rembang-tidak-mengandung-air; pada 22 Maret 2015.

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