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Belajar dari Kebangkrutan Mondragon: Keterbatasan Kooperasi dalam Sistem Kapitalisme*

Oleh Pete Dolack

Diterjemahkan oleh Angga Palsewa Putra

Mondagon Cooperative

Mondagon Cooperative

Berita mengenai pengajuan klaim bangkrut oleh salah satu perusahaan Mondragon bukanlah sinyal kegagalan bagi kooperasi, melainkan peringatan bahwa perusahaan kooperasi terbesar di dunia sekelas Mondragon sekalipun tidak cukup kebal terhadap persaingan kapitalis.

Kooperasi sudah menuju ke arah sistem tatakelola produksi yang lebih manusiawi. Namun,di dalam dirinya, ia belum mampu mengubah relasi pasar. Hal tersebut wajar, bukan hanya karena kooperasi masih merupakan pulau sangat kecil di tengah lautan luas kapitalisme —seringkali harus membuat keputusan yang terus-menerus dipengaruhi hentakan kekuatan pasar— juga karena ekonomi kooperasi masih harus melakukan beberapa kompromi, alih-alih kompetisi, sebagai basis relasi produksinya.

Penutupan perusahaan peralatan rumah tangga Mondragon, Fagor Electrodomesticos, juga merupakan sebuah gambaran tentang kooperasi ketika ia menjadi terlalu besar. Mondragon terus berkembang dengan pesat, tidak hanya melalui pertumbuhan internal dan pengembangan bisnis baru, tetapi juga melalui pembelian perusahaan-perusahaan di luar Spanyol. Meskipun ekspansi usaha yang dilakukannya bukan merupakan faktor penyebab kebangkrutan Fagor, Mondragon terbukti mengalami kesulitan mengintegrasikan seluruh pekerja dari beberapa perusahaan yang diakuisisinya. Sedikitnya ada 14.000 pekerja yang kemudian menjadi karyawan kooperasi.

Dengan demikian, anggota kooperasi memperoleh keuntungan dengan mengeruk nilai lebih dari karyawan-karyawan tersebut—yang tidak terlibat dalam pengambilan keputusan karena mereka bukan anggota kooperasi. Pabrik Fagor di Polandia (di mana para pekerjanya adalah karyawan, bukan anggota kooperasi) menjadi korban dari serangan perlambatan ekonomi pada 2011. Fagor, yang bereaksi terhadap tekanan persaingan kapitalis, telah memindahkan beberapa produksinya dari Prancis ke Polandia untuk mengambil keuntungan dari upah yang lebih rendah di sana.

Kegagalan Fagor untuk bertahan dari krisis hebat yang dialami perekonomian Spanyol juga perlu diperhatikan karena Fagor merupakan bisnis awal Mondragon dan salah satu yang terbesar dari 110 federasi kooperasi yang dimilikinya. Pendapatan Fagor dari pabrik mesin cuci, lemari es, mesin pencuci piring, dan peralatan rumahtangga lainnya, merosot dari €1,8 miliar pada 2008 menjadi €1,1 miliar pada 2012, dan belum memperoleh keuntungan sejak 2008. Turunnya pendapatan ini disebabkan oleh krisis ekonomi di Spanyol, dan menyumbang angka pengangguran sebesar 27% di tengah anjloknya pasar perumahan.

Anggota kooperasi lebih baik daripada buruh kapitalis

Berbeda dengan perusahaan kapitalis di mana para pekerja rutin di-PHK hanya karena perusahaan mengalami sedikit penurunan keuntungan, Mondragon berupaya untuk tetap mempekerjakan semua anggotanya. Setiap pengambilan keputusan dilakukan oleh pekerja sendiri, melalui dewan pekerja yang sudah dipilih, manajer yang bertanggung jawab, perwakilan-perwakilan, dan dewan direksi.

Dalam kasus Fagor, anggota kooperasi sebelumnya telah sepakat untuk memotong gaji mereka sebesar 20%. Selain itu, Mondragon telah memberikan €300 juta dalam upaya untuk mempertahankan para pekerja peralatan rumahtangga. Tetapi, Dewan Umum Mondragon, yang mengoordinasikan kebijakan dari berbagai perusahaan, memutuskan untuk tidak memberikan dana tambahan. Mereka menolak pengajuan dana tambahan sebesar €180 juta yang diyakini Fagor akan berhasil menstabilkan bisnisnya.

Siaran pers yang dikeluarkan Mondragon pada 30 Oktober mengatakan:

“Proposal yang diajukan oleh Fagor Electrodomesticos tidak memiliki nilai viabilitas [peluang hidup], dan (Dewan Umum Mondragon) telah sepakat dan menyimpulkan bahwa perusahaan tersebut tidak dapat lagi merespons kebutuhan pasar, serta suntikan dana tambahan yang diajukan tidak akan menjamin masa depan bisnisnya.

“Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir Perusahaan Mondragon telah menganalisis situasi pasca pemberian bantuan keuangan kepada Fagor Electrodomesticos, baik melalui kooperasi itu sendiri maupun lewat berbagai instrumen perusahaan yang mereka miliki, dan telah mempertimbangkan bahwa perencanaan yang diajukan oleh Fagor Electrodomesticos tidak memiliki nilai viabilitas.”

Karena setiap perusahaan Mondragon adalah kooperasi swakelola yang otonom (yang saling membantu satu sama lain melalui mekanisme “gotongroyong”), penutupan Fagor tidak memiliki dampak bagi kelangsungan hidup unit lain. Namun, karena salah satu mekanisme “gotongroyong” adalah pendidikan ulang pekerja dalam memperjuangkan perusahaan dan pemindahan mereka ke unit bisnis yang lebih kuat, Mondragon mungkin akan mengalami kesulitan mengatasi kebangkrutan dalam skala yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya. Di sisi lain, anggota kooperasi Fagor tidak dapat melakukan protes dengan turun ke jalan seperti ketika mereka bekerja di sebuah perusahaan kapitalis dengan sistem pengambilan keputusan yang top-down.

Siaran pers Mondragon lebih lanjut mengatakan bahwa dewan umum berjanji untuk:

“Menjalankan semua mekanisme dukungan yang diperlukan untuk mengurangi sedapat mungkin dampak dari kondisi Fagor Electrodomesticos terhadap lapangan kerja. Langkah-langkah yang diambil mulai dari penugasan kembali pekerja yang telah pensiun dini hingga menjalankan skema pelatihan untuk meningkatkan keahlian para pekerja Fagor Electrodomesticos. […] Keragaman sektor dan pasar di mana kooperasi kami beroperasi merupakan jaminan yang menuntun kami untuk percaya bahwa mereka akan terus memunculkan usaha-usaha baru dalam jangka pendek sampai menengah, yang akan berdampak positif pada penciptaan lapangan kerja. Fakta bahwa bisnis kami mampu bersaing di pasar masing-masing merupakan kabar baik bagi antisipasikemungkinan terjadinya kasus serupa ,yang dialami Electrodomesticos, di masa yang akan datang.”

Sepanjang sejarahnya, belum pernah ada PHK di Mondragon, meskipun tingkat pengangguran di Spanyol meledak. Ini bukan omong-kosong, meskipun El País melaporkan bahwa pekerja di pabrik di Polandia tidak termasuk yang dipekerjakan kembali. Bahkan para pekerja sepakat untuk mengurangi upah mereka sebesar rata-rata 5% dan mampu memajukan perusahaan-perusahaan yang tadinya lemah menjadi lebih kuat. Anggota kooperasi Fagor akan dibayar 80% dari gaji mereka selama dua tahun melalui perusahaan asuransi Mondragon sendiri.

Dipaksa “menjadi kapitalis bagi diri sendiri”

Keberhasilan Mondragon yang berawal dari segelintir orang di tahun 1950-an menuju statusnya seperti sekarang—sebagai pesaing utama di berbagai industri, terletak pada kesuksesannya bersaing dengan perusahaan-perusahaan kapitalis dalam pasang surut persaingan pasar. Belum ada artikel yang sekadar, katakanlah,berisi cibiran tentang penutupan Fagor ini dari para ahli eknomi, termasuk pembahasan tentang masalah kontrol kualitas. Kenyataanya, Fagor jatuh karena rendahnya permintaan pasar di Spanyol dan Prancis, serta persaingan yang ketat dari produk impor berupah rendah dari Asia.

Di sinilah letak kontradiksinya. Mondragon beroperasi sebagai kooperasi, sepenuhnya di bawah kendali para pekerjanya (setidaknya yang berada di Spanyol), di mana semua jabatan pengelola dan pengawasan perusahaan dipilih di internal, kesenjangan upah pekerja jauh lebih kecil ketimbang perusahaan-perusahaan kapitalis, dan dimiliki secara eksklusif oleh tenaga kerja. Dengan kata lain, semua anggota kooperasi menanggung risiko bersama, menikmati keuntungan bersama dan terlibat dalam setiap pengambilan keputusan. Keuntungan perusahaan akan dibagikan kepada pekerja itu sendiri, selain untuk dana investasi dan pembiayaan internal organisasi secara keseluruhan.

Meskipun demikian, di internalnya Mondragon harus beroperasi seperti perusahaan kapitalis tradisional di luar gerbang mereka. Mereka dipaksa untuk bersaing dengan perusahaan-perusahaan kapitalis yang beroperasi dalam mekanisme pasar kapitalis, dan mereka tidak bisa melakukan sebaliknya jika ingin bertahan hidup. Ini adalah kasus yang juga dihadapi kooperasi-kooperasi lain hari ini. Pada dasarnya, pekerja kooperasi dalam sistem ekonomi kapitalis adalah, dalam kata-kata Karl Marx, terpaksa “menjadi kapitalis bagi diri sendiri”.

Dalam kasus Mondragon, karena skala usahanya yang besar, pekerja Fagor mungkin dapat tetap bekerja dengan pindah ke unit usaha lain yang dimiliki Mondragon. Mereka terhindar dari ancaman terlempar ke pekerjaan dengan upah rendah di belahan dunia lain.Tetapi mereka juga tidak bisa selamanya bertahan dalam bisnis saat menghadapi kemerosotan terburuk kapitalisme sejak era Depresi Besar.

Selain itu, Mondragon juga bertindak seperti sebuah perusahaan kapitalis dalam hal akuisisi bisnis dan kadang-kadang dalam memperlakukan para pekerjanya, terutama yang di luar Spanyol. Mereka diperlakukan lebih sebagai pekerja kooperasi ketimbang sebagai anggota penuh kooperasi. Hasil tersebut karena kebutuhan untuk melakukan ekspansi bisnis dan untuk bertahan dari kerasnya persaingan kapitalis. Setiap ekonomi yang beroperasi atas dasar persaingan pasar—di mana pasar diperbolehkan untuk menentukan kebijakan sosial—akan berprinsip“tumbuh atau mati”, di mana perusahaan berjuang untuk bertahan hidup.

Upah yang diperoleh anggota kooperasi sendiri tetap menjadi komoditas jika semua hal lainnya adalah komoditas yang harganya ditentukan oleh pasar. Dalam perekonomian yang didominasi oleh kooperasi, tetapi dengan relasi pasar kapitalis yang masih utuh, pekerja kolektif akan menghadapi tekanan pasar agar mengurangi upah mereka sendiri untuk dapat bersaing lebih baik. Beberapa perusahaan akan menjadi jauh lebih besar daripada yang lain; perusahaan-perusahaan kecil akan dipaksa menjual diri mereka kepada pesaing yang lebih besar, konsolidasi produksi sampai oligarki akan muncul. Beberapa industri akan jauh lebih besar daripada yang lain. Ketika persaingan pasar semakin sengit, keberlangsungan hidup bisnis akan menuntut perilaku yang lebih kejam.

Pengawasan yang demokratis sebagai dasar ekonomi baru.

Sebuah ekonomi kooperatif tidak hanya harus didasarkan pada perusahaan yang dijalankan dengan sistem kooperasi. Ia juga harus berjejaring dengan kooperasi lain dan bekerja sama satu sama lain. Seluruh perekonomian harus didasarkan pada pengawasan yang demokratis, dengan harga komoditas yang dinegosiasikan dalam pembicaraan yang adil dan terbuka. Dengan sistem distribusi yang terencana, kooperasi akan cukup lentur untuk merespons perubahan permintaan konsumen sehingga tidak terjadi produksi berlebihan. Perkonomian semacam itu sebagian besar mungkin berada dalam kewenangan kooperasi, tetapi industri-industri penting seperti perbankan dan energi akan dikelola oleh negara—tentu saja di bawah pengawasan yang demokratis.

Keberhasilan kooperasi seperti Mondragon memberikan gambaran sekilas bagaimana ekonomi diselenggarakan untuk kebutuhan manusia. Bukan untuk keuntungan pribadi yang serakah. Namun,ia tidak dapat merasa “cukup” hanya dengan dirinya sendiri. Ini bukan kecaman terhadap kooperasi; sebaliknya, pertumbuhan kooperasi harus didorong sekuat mungkin. Dalam keadaan seperti sekarang ini, mereka masih berada di pinggiran, sepenuhnya tunduk pada kerasnya persaingan kapitalis.

Sejauh ini, belum ada kooperasi—tidak peduli seberapa sukses—yang bisa beroperasi di luar permintaan “pasar”. Sementara pasar kapitalis adalah akumulasi kepentingan industrialis dan pemodal terbesar di dunia. Semakin banyak industri mengikuti arah bisnis tekstil dan gadget, yaitu, memindahkan produksi ke tempat-tempat dengan upah lebih rendah dan aturan yang lebih longgar, akan ada lebih banyak tekanan bagi kooperasi untuk menyesuaikan diri atau keluar dari bisnis. Fagor bukanlah kooperasi terakhir dan satu-satunya yang menghadapi dilema semacam ini. Hal tersebut tidak dapat dimungkiri selama kooperasi masih merupakan pulau-pulau kecil di bawah kuasa persaingan kapitalis.

Sebuah dunia yang lebih baik, ekonomi rasional yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan manusia, membutuhkan sistem yang berbeda. Kooperasi besar seperti Mondragon sekalipun tidak memiliki kemampuan untuk beroperasi di luar logika kapitalisme. Secara keseluruhan, ia sejauh ini sudah berhasil berkompetisi, tetapi ia terlalu besar untuk mampu mengintegrasikan semua pekerjanya. Dunia membutuhkan lebih banyak Mondragon, yang akan bekerja sama dan bernegosiasi satu sama lain, bahkan untuk menggoreskan luka pada wajah kapitalisme.Para kapitalis juga tidak mungkin duduk santai dan tinggal diam menyaksikan sebuah alternatif tumbuh untuk menggerogoti kekuasaan mereka.

Sesempurna apapun sebuah model kooperasi, ia tidak dapat menggantikan kelas pekerja di seluruh dunia yang bersatu untuk menciptakan dunia yang lebih baik. Semua kemajuan pada abad ke-20 adalah hasil dari perjuangan kolektif. Tetapi,karena gerakan-gerakan tersebut berhenti hanya pada tahap reformasi dan tidak melakukan perubahan sistem, keuntungan yang sudah diperoleh secara perlahan diambil alih kembali.

Jika kapitalisme ingin dilampaui, hubungan antar perusahaan dan antara masyarakat dengan perusahaan harus diletakkan pada pijakan baru yang didasarkan pada kerjasama, bukan kompetisi.[]

*diterjemahkan dari “Bankruptcy of Mondragon company demonstrates limits of cooperation under capitalism”,November2013, (http://systemicdisorder.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/capitalism-limits-cooperation).

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